21-25 June 2020
Schönbrunn Palace - Apothekertrakt, Vienna/Austria
Europe/Vienna timezone
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Contribution List

Displaying 190 contributions out of 190
Type: Oral Presentation (*) Session: HDG Coating Formation & Dross Management
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
In continuous galvanizing line operations, the thickness and the uniformity of the zinc coating are governed by the gas jet wiping process; a complex multi-phase, multi-scale phenomenon. Though efficient, the process leads to the undesired top skimming formation. To better understand the intricate interactions among the moving strip, the unsteady turbulent jet, the falling excess liquid zinc and t ... More
Presented by Kintak Raymond YU on 23 Jun 2020 at 16:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: HDG Coating Weight Control by Nozzle Design & Settings
Track: Process Technology - Pre/Post-Treatment (Strip Cleaning, Skin Passing, Passivation, Oiling)
This study experimentally investigated the ability of a novel multi-slot air-knife design to reduce high-intensity tonal noise and produce thinner coating weights in the continuous galvanizing gas jet wiping process. Coating weight measurements were carried out over a wide range of operating conditions to correlate the effect of the multi-slot jet operating parameters on the final coating thicknes ... More
Presented by Joseph MCDERMID on 24 Jun 2020 at 14:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Modeling Bearings Wear Rate and Enhanced Pot Roll Coatings & HDG Coating Weight Control by Numerical Simulation and Modeling
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
The lifetime of pot bearings is one of the major sources of maintenance shutdowns on a continuous galvanizing line. However the lifetime between different lines can be very different whereas the general process windows may look the same A simple model is proposed to quantify the expected wear rate, considering the bearing geometry and process parameters. A viable model would help operators unders ... More
Presented by Michel DUBOIS on 24 Jun 2020 at 10:40
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: Press Hardening of Coated Steels
Al-Fe alloy-coated steel sheets for hot press forming is manufactured by performing a batch annealing process to the Al-Si coated sheet. It has an advantage of prolonging the mold life by suppressing the reaction between blank and mold. However, Al-Fe alloy-coated steel sheets are inferior in spot weldability to conventional Al-Si coated steel sheets. In addition, welding current ranges decrease w ... More
Presented by Sang-Man YUN on 22 Jun 2020 at 20:40
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
Recently GA automotive steel plates require more high-grade products, and thus the defects that occur during press are reported. A lot of complaints are happening. Among them, defects in powder ring are representative, and it can lead to customer's claim through powder ring that occurs during press. GA steel sheets will undergo alloying heat treatment after passing through Pot- Airknife. Before ... More
Presented by Suk KIM on 22 Jun 2020 at 18:25
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Surface Oxidation and Wettability
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
In order to improve fuel efficiency and to reduce carbon emissions, automakers are using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) to lightweight vehicles without compromising passenger safety. In manufacturing, the steel sheet is annealed in a continuous galvanizing line (CGL) to achieve the desired mechanical properties. During annealing, alloying elements such as Si, Mn, Cr, Al, etc. in the steel ca ... More
Presented by Venu KRISHNARDULA, Daniel LIU on 24 Jun 2020 at 09:30
This paper has the aim at presenting a methodology of defect root cause analysis for hot-dip galvanized coatings. It has been developed to provide a global overview of all aspects related to the Materials Science pyramid – the processing route, the material properties, the structure and in-use performance – all linked by the material’s characterization. Its final aim is to provide not a sing ... More
Presented by Walter DAL'MAZ SILVA on 23 Jun 2020 at 14:00
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: Product Modifications on Metallic Coatings (Spangle Size, Solidification Path, Interface Layers, …)
Al-Si coated steel is required to have a beautiful surface according to the application, and spangle size is one of the important factors to satisfy this. To control the Spangle size, Various studies have been conducted. In this study, Conditions of Spangle Minimizer which is using the Al powder spraying method after Al-Si pot were investigated, which is one of the methods to control the spangle s ... More
Presented by Jong Beom LEE on 22 Jun 2020 at 18:35
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Absorption of Hydrogen & Fundamentals on Atmospheric Corrosion and Corrosion Modelling
Track: Automotive Corrosion Behavior 
Zinc coated steel sheets are used in order to protect corrosion of automobile bodies. It is well known that the type of automotive corrosion can be divided into perforation corrosion and cosmetic corrosion. Although the mechanism of the perforation corrosion has been studied well, the mechanism of the cosmetic corrosion has not been clarified yet. In this study, an in-situ observation technique wa ... More
Presented by Shunsuke YAMAMOTO on 24 Jun 2020 at 11:40
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Automotive Applications - ZnAlMg Coatings
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium Coatings for Automotive Application
Zn alloy-coated steels such as ZnMg and ZnMgAl have been recognized as a potential automotive materials replacing traditional Zn-coated steels such as galvanized (GI) and galvannealed (GA) steel with enhanced corrosion resistance under harsh corrosive environment. There are two representative Zn alloy coatings, PosMAC®1.5 (ZnMgAl coating) and PosPVD® (ZnMg coating) for automotive application in ... More
Presented by Yun Ha YOO on 22 Jun 2020 at 11:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace I - Temperature Control Challenges
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
Measurements at high-temperature facilities such as galvanizing lines are often possible only to a limited extent. Moreover, many of the processes involved are too complex to apply existing numerical methods such as CFD to provide the desired information. Therefore, an empirical method was developed to estimate process data which is not measured. The method was demonstrated by determining the surf ... More
Presented by Alexander REIMANN on 22 Jun 2020 at 11:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Absorption of Hydrogen & Fundamentals on Atmospheric Corrosion and Corrosion Modelling
Track: Fundamentals on Atmospheric Corrosion and Corrosion Modelling
For prediction of corrosivity of steel products used in atmospheric environments, exposure tests in the actual environment have been widely conducted. Long-term corrosion loss has been predicted by extrapolating the change of corrosion loss with time in exposure tests. However, the data of exposure test in regions where we would like to know corrosion rate doesn’t always exist. In this case, exp ... More
Presented by Masataka OMODA on 24 Jun 2020 at 11:20
With the continuous improvement demand for galvanized automotive sheet quality, and the zinc pot equipment corrosion resistance and dross adhesion resistance requirements are also increasing, thermal spraying has played an important role.The failure forms of zinc pot hardware in continuous hot—dip galvanizing lines(CGLs)are Zn corrosion,abrasion and dross build—up. Enhancing the life of the po ... More
Presented by Lu WANG on 24 Jun 2020 at 11:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Absorption of Hydrogen & Fundamentals on Atmospheric Corrosion and Corrosion Modelling
Track: Fundamentals on Atmospheric Corrosion and Corrosion Modelling
Global expansion of automotive market leads to demand for optimization of materials selection corresponding to the corrosion severity in environments. Although great efforts have been devoted to study the corrosion behaviour of steel products in East and Southeast Asia, reports concerning corrosion occurring in the automotive body in those regions are still quite limited to the date. Atmospheric c ... More
Presented by Rinta SATO on 24 Jun 2020 at 12:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-ZnFe: Liquid and Vapour Metal Induced Embrittlement
Track: Press Hardening of Zn-Based Coatings
Galvanized press hardened steel (PHS) is in serial production more than 15 years. Zinc provides excellent cathodic corrosion protection for PHS parts, but can cause Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) and micro cracks. One can dispose of this LME risk by using the indirect hot forming process and avoiding tensile stress at high temperatures. To eliminate LME for the direct hot forming process there ... More
Presented by Josef FADERL on 24 Jun 2020 at 14:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace II - Current Topics from Preoxidation to Galvannealing
Track: New Galvanizing Lines with Innovative Solutions and New Technological Concepts
ArcelorMittal Gent is one of the first steel suppliers to have invested in a fully versatile furnace with the objective to produce a high amount of third generation Advanced High Strength Steels, such as Q&P steels. ArcelorMittal chose the ANDRITZ Group to supply the necessary equipment, in particular the ANDRITZ Selas furnace, to insure that the specific thermal and process cycles needed for the ... More
Presented by Karim KAHOUL, Brecht CAEKAERT on 22 Jun 2020 at 15:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Coating Alloy and Modification effects on Corrosion Behaviour
Track: Fundamentals on Atmospheric Corrosion and Corrosion Modelling
After two experiences with the premature failure of the roof of a secondary steel factory, an approach was developed to identify the reasons for the quick failure, and consequent loss of almost one million dollars each time. Problems concerning with the depolarization of the cell Zn/Fe, the design principles to corrosion prevention, the establishment of nests of sulfates and the cycle of acid rege ... More
Presented by Carlos ARROYAVE on 24 Jun 2020 at 15:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Industrial Status of Galvanizing Production Technology
Track: New Technological Concepts
Steel manufacturers are continuously developing higher performance steel grades by optimizing the chemistry at the steelwork and by changing the process parameters, in particular the heat cycles to be applied in the annealing furnaces. In hot dip galvanizing lines, the production of the latest Gen3 AHSS require higher annealing temperatures which are difficult to be achieved by using gas fired rad ... More
Presented by Emmanuel PATARD on 23 Jun 2020 at 08:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: On-Line Measurements and Galvanizing Bath Control Development & Bath Al Chemistry Effects on Coating Quality and Bath Management
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
A system to alter the behavior of dross in a CGL bath utilizing pumps in the zinc bath was evaluated utilizing CFD Modeling. The mesh of a conventional bath was modified with virtual pump intakes and discharge ports with minimal modification to the existing mesh. The propensity for dross formation was inferred by temperature variations between the firing of the pot inductors. This approach resu ... More
Presented by Paul JANAVICIUS on 23 Jun 2020 at 15:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: HDG Coating Formation & Dross Management
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
The surface quality of galvanized steel sheets is considerably influenced by intermetallic dross particles, which inevitably form during operation. η-phase Fe2Al5 top dross and δ-phase FeZn7 bottom dross particles have been reported to be entrapped into the coating causing functional and optical defects. Moreover, particles are frequently mentioned to adhere to the stationary and the moving bath ... More
Presented by Werner EßL on 23 Jun 2020 at 17:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Challenges Galvanizing 2nd and 3rd Generation AHSS
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
Arcelor Mittal Cleveland Hot Dip Galvanizing line produces 260,000 metric tons of Galvannealed AHSS products (GA) annually for automotive customers. New AHSS grades and thickness gauges are under constant development for automotive applications to meet the future automotive fuel efficiency standards. The use of alloy elements such as Manganese, Silicon and Aluminum in Dual Phase and TRIP chemistri ... More
Presented by Frances BLEICH on 23 Jun 2020 at 16:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Origins of Hydrogen Embrittlement
Track: Hydrogen Embrittlement 
High strength steels are increasingly used, particularly by the automotive industry where reduction of vehicle weight and emission of greenhouse gases have high priority. With increasing strength, the material becomes more sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement. Hydrogen can enter the steel during the production process, for instance when electro galvanizing. The combination of a sensitive material, ... More
Presented by Sven Erik HÖRNSTRÖM on 24 Jun 2020 at 09:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: On-line Measurements - Cleanliness, Austenite Fraction and Coating Defects
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
Nowadays, automotive steel customers are more and more strict on the coating quality, especially for the exposed parts that should not have any aspect defect. To satisfy this requirement at the exit of galvanising line, one important parameter is the cleanliness of the substrate surface after the cleaning section at the entry of the line in terms of carbon pollution and iron fines. Indeed, if c ... More
Presented by Cyril PLANCQ on 23 Jun 2020 at 10:40
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Modeling Bearings Wear Rate and Enhanced Pot Roll Coatings & HDG Coating Weight Control by Numerical Simulation and Modeling
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
In coating process of continuous galvanizing line, transverse crossbow is frequently found in the case of thick gage or high strength steel processing. This transverse crossbow arises due to the unbalanced residual stress distribution along the thickness, which is made by the elasto-plastic behavior that the steel sheet experiences during roll to roll transportation under continuous steel strip pr ... More
Presented by Changwoon JEE on 24 Jun 2020 at 12:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: LME of Resistance Spot Welded Coated Steels: Assessments
Track: Thermal Joining (Spot Welding) and Liquid Metal Embrittlement
Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) is a complex phenomenon which may occur during spot welding of zinc-coated Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) developed for the Automotive market. Zinc or zinc alloy in liquid state penetrates along the steel grain boundaries and may cause, depending on conditions, grains’ decohesion and cracks’ initiation and propagation under given mechanical stresses. ... More
Presented by David ZAPICO ALVAREZ on 23 Jun 2020 at 09:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Automotive Applications - ZnAlMg Coatings
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium Coatings for Automotive Application
The protective pure Zn coatings serve as a barrier and a galvanic protection to steel applied in the automotive industries. However, Zn has some economical issues such as too high demand exceeding the supply and wide fluctuation of price. Additionally, the weaknesses of the Zn coatings have been reported steadily such as insufficient corrosion resistance under severe corrosive aqueous solutions. E ... More
Presented by SeungHwan LEE on 22 Jun 2020 at 11:30
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
Dual phase steels are strongly dependent on the microstructure obtained during production to meet the needs in its application and the required mechanical properties. Besides the parameters associated with chemical composition, hot rolling and cold rolling, the process of continuous intercritical annealing directly affects the microstructure and consequently the mechanical properties. In this stud ... More
Presented by Roberta ROCHA on 22 Jun 2020 at 21:05
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Coating Alloy Corrosion Studies
Track: Fundamentals on Atmospheric Corrosion and Corrosion Modelling
Due to the increasing demand for material and cost reduction, there has been a global trend to reduce the coating thickness of continuously galvanized sheet and coil products. As the lifetime of a metallic coating depends mainly on its coating weight, reducing the coating thickness could compromise the durability and performance of the coating. Comparatively, Zn-Al alloy coatings, such as GF (Zn ... More
Presented by Neil GAO on 24 Jun 2020 at 17:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Coating Alloy and Modification effects on Corrosion Behaviour
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium Coatings for Automotive Application
As competition among global automakers intensifies, demand for materials that are more strict in price and performance is increasing. While steel and plastic materials compete for automotive fuel tanks, plastic materials have advantages in terms of light weighting of automobiles, but have high prices. Accordingly, in this paper, four types of Zn-X plated steel sheets, electroplating (X=none, Sn) a ... More
Presented by Moon Hi HONG on 24 Jun 2020 at 14:00
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: Press Hardening of Coated Steels
Hot press forming (HPF) steel has been widely used to produce high strength and complex shaped car parts because it provides high mechanical properties and formability. Process of press hardening is carried out at high temperature over A3 line, which cause the oxidation of the steel surface. Since oxide removal is required for welding and painting, many different coatings have been introduced to s ... More
Presented by Hyeon Seok HWANG on 22 Jun 2020 at 20:55
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Coating Microstructure Analysis and Steel/Coating Surface Reactivity
Track: Structure and Surface Analysis as well as Defect Characterization
Hot-dip galvanized Zn-rich coatings on steel sheets often exhibit dendritic morphologies formed by the primary Zn phase during solidification. The corrosion resistance and surface quality of the galvanized coatings depend not only on the coating chemistry and grain size, but also on the dendritic morphologies of individual coating grains. Therefore, it is of fundamental importance to understand ho ... More
Presented by Joo-Youl HUH on 22 Jun 2020 at 11:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-ZnFe: Liquid and Vapour Metal Induced Embrittlement
Track: Press Hardening of Zn-Based Coatings
As galvanized or galvannealed coatings (GI or GA) are often challenged by excessive zinc evaporation and liquid metal embrittlement (LME), aluminized coatings have become dominant for press hardenable steels (PHS). However, compared to aluminized coatings, galvanized coatings are more cost effective. Galvanized coatings not only provide cathodic protection to the steel substrate; they are also s ... More
Presented by Neil GAO, Weiping SUN on 24 Jun 2020 at 15:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Non-Automotive Applications: ZnAlMg Coatings
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium and Zinc-Aluminum Coatings for Non-Automotive Application
Advanced pre-painted steel sheets were developed by applying Zn-11%Al-3%Mg-0.2%Si coated steel sheets, which are greatly superior to mainstream galvanized steel sheets in corrosion resistance. The basic concept of the development was to create more environment-conscious products and the vital goals to realize the concept was following two. Firstly, they were aimed at much more durable even in a ha ... More
Presented by Taihei KANETO on 22 Jun 2020 at 17:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace III - Rapid Cooling, Furnace Roll Coatings
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
The realisation of economic and ecological aims led to a development of improved structural materials. Third generation Advanced High-Strength-Steels and their application in automotive bodies in white are one example of this trend. Those steels are often processed as thin strips in combined continuous annealing and galvanizing lines and require new heat treatment possibilities to acquire their be ... More
Presented by Maximilian SCHLEUPEN on 22 Jun 2020 at 17:30
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium Coatings for Automotive Application
Recently, the demand for high strength hot-dip galvanized steel sheet is continuously increasing due to light weight and safety of automobiles. However, in the case of hot-dip galvanized steel sheet, it is found to have a problem that LME(Liquid Metal Embrittlement) cracks occur during welding process, therefore it is limited to supply to the automakers. The hot dip galvanized steel sheet having a ... More
Presented by Suk Kyu LEE on 22 Jun 2020 at 21:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-ZnFe: New Steel & Coating Developments
Track: Press Hardening of Zn-Based Coatings
Direct hot press forming (DHPF) of Zn-coated steels presents significant challenges associated with avoiding liquid metal embrittlement (LME) while maintaining robust cathodic protection. As identified by previous studies, a minimum amount of the Γ-Fe3Zn10 phase (15 vol%) is necessary to provide robust cathodic protection for Zn-coated press hardening steels (PHS). The Γ-Fe3Zn10 phase is liquid ... More
Presented by Chris THOMSEN on 24 Jun 2020 at 16:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Non-Automotive Applications: ZnAlMg Coatings
Track: Consumer Electronics Application  - Forming, Joining, Painting and Final Properties 
The pre-painted steel sheet is widely used as the panel of audio visual systems and office automation equipments (flat-panel TV, DVD, and so on).  The pre-painted steel sheet generally has the primer-paint and the top-paint on a chemical conversion galvanized steel sheet. These paints are solvent-based and applied in the coil coating line. The total paint thickness of conventional pre-painted s ... More
Presented by Kunihiko TOSHIN on 22 Jun 2020 at 17:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Plenary Talk 5 - China
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
With China's economic expansion having moderated to a "new normal" pace and manufacturing industry upgrading, the total amount of zinc and zinc alloy coated steel sheets in China has remained stable, but the demand for high-end zinc and zinc alloy coated steel sheets has gradually increased. This paper gives overviews of development and application of zinc and zinc alloy coated steel sheets in Chi ... More
Presented by Qifu ZHANG on 22 Jun 2020 at 10:00
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: New Technological Concepts
Abstracts The mechanism for the formation of top dross in the zinc pot on a hot-dip galvanizing line was studied. The detrimental effect of the top dross on the coating quality was discussed. The need for the continuous removal of top dross accumulated on the bath surface was emphasized. A novel technology was developed by utilizing a travelling electromagnetic field to guide the motion of the ... More
Presented by Mr. Hongwei QIAN on 22 Jun 2020 at 18:05
Type: Oral Presentation Session: HDG Coating Weight Control by Innovative Technological Concepts
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
Increasing revenues in Hot Dip Galvanising can be achieved by increasing the line productivity. Therefore, the industry trend is to increase line speed. However, in elevating line speed of a hot dip galvanising line the drag out of molten zinc on the strip increases. As a consequence, more molten metal has to be wiped from the strip. To accomplish this air knives are of increasing importance. In t ... More
Presented by Jaap VAN EENENNAAM on 24 Jun 2020 at 17:10
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium Coatings for Automotive Application
The effect of Mg and Zn addition on microstructure and corrosion resistance of AlSi based coating for the steel sheet was investigated using a range of analytical methods, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, glow discharge spectroscopy (GDS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This study revaled that the combined addition of Mg and Zn lead to the formation ... More
Presented by Dongmin CHO, Jinseong PARK, Si-On KIM, Sung Jin KIM, Yeongjae JUNG on 22 Jun 2020 at 20:15
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace I - Temperature Control Challenges
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
Substandard advanced high strength steel (AHSS) mechanical properties produced through continuous galvanizing can often be traced back to temperature excursions during intercritical annealing, caused by errors in the pyrometrically-inferred temperatures used to control the furnaces. These errors originate from the changing surface state of the steel strip, in terms of roughness and oxide formation ... More
Presented by Kaihsiang LIN on 22 Jun 2020 at 11:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Origins of Hydrogen Embrittlement
Track: Hydrogen Embrittlement 
Recently, the tendency to improve the fuel efficiency by reducing the weight of the car body and using advanced high strength steel(AHSS) has affected the automotive industry. In order to secure the strength of the AHSS above 1Gpa, various elements such as Mn, Si, and Al are added. Additionally, annealing process is performed at high temperature to form an austenite phase and at high hydrogen con ... More
Presented by JoungHyun LA on 24 Jun 2020 at 08:30
Type: Poster Session: Bath dross analysis and coating characterization
Track: Vapour Deposition - Process and Product
The advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) such as a dual-phase (DP) steel, twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel, and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel have been used extensively in automotive industries to reduce the weight and to improve the safety of automobiles. To ensure the corrosion resistance of AHSS, the advanced coating materials and coating process to replace the conventi ... More
Presented by SeungHwan LEE
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium and Zinc-Aluminum Coatings for Non-Automotive Application
A steel is used in all industries because it has many advantages such as high strength, easy workability and high-quality paintability. Nevertheless, steel can not be used for a long time due to the occurrence of rust caused by various factors. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of steel, the development of a high corrosion resistance steel with Mg and Al is being studied. Also, we shoul ... More
Presented by Bora PARK on 22 Jun 2020 at 20:10
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
In the automotive industry, the development of advanced high strength steel(AHSS) sheets is continuously required to respond to the environmental issues such as carbon reduction and securing a passenger safety. Various alloying elements such as Si, Mn, Al and so on, are added to improve the strength of the steel sheets, such steel sheets are galvanized to improve the corrosion resistance. It is we ... More
Presented by Min-ho JANG on 22 Jun 2020 at 19:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Challenges Galvanizing 2nd and 3rd Generation AHSS
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
The present paper will summarize the selective oxidation and reactive wetting results obtained for a prototype medium-Mn 0.15C-6Mn-2Al-1Si 3G AHSS after CGL-compatible thermal processing. It was previously determined that 3G AHSS mechanical property targets of 24,000 UTS x total elongation < 40,000 MPa% could be achieved using CGL-compatible heat treatments by annealing from a 80% martensite + 20 ... More
Presented by Daniella PALLISCO on 23 Jun 2020 at 17:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: HDG Coating Weight Control by Nozzle Design & Settings
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
The gas wiping is generally used for coating weight control of continuous galvanizing lines (CGL). The gas wiping is the method to scrape off the surplus plating liquid after immersing a steel sheet in the molten plating bath by a gas jet by a slim slot nozzle of one pair of steel sheet front and back. Extensive coating weight control is possible by coordinating gas jet pressure depending on line ... More
Presented by Gentaro TAKEDA on 24 Jun 2020 at 14:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Selective Oxidation of AHSS
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
Varieties of advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) and ultra-high strength steel (UHSS) have been developed due to their great potential to improve the passenger safety and reduce the weight of body in white in the automotive industry. However, the production of AHSS and UHSS is still a great challenge for the steel makers. The selective oxidation of the alloy elements in the continuous annealing pr ... More
Presented by Xinyan JIN on 23 Jun 2020 at 14:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Coating Alloy and Modification effects on Corrosion Behaviour
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium and Zinc-Aluminum Coatings for Non-Automotive Application
Hot dip galvanized 55%Aluminum-Zinc coating was successful industrialized. In order to improve the performance of 55%Aluminum-Zinc coating,the expected structure and the better property could be obtained by adding 1~3%Magnesium into 55%Aluminum-Zinc coating.In this paper, magnesium on the structure and corrosion Resistance of 55%Aluminum-Zinc Coating was researched by different analysis between ... More
Presented by Zhilong DING on 24 Jun 2020 at 14:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: LME of Resistance Spot Welded Coated Steels: Moving Toward Solutions
Track: Thermal Joining (Spot Welding) and Liquid Metal Embrittlement
Two important objectives of the automotive industry are the decrease in car weight and improvement in safety, the third generation AHSS especially QP steel sheets with zinc-coated are developed in recent years. However, liquid metal embrittlement(LME) issue easily occurs in spot welding of QP galvanized steel sheets, It affects the further application of QP steel sheets. In this paper, three diffe ... More
Presented by Li WANG on 23 Jun 2020 at 12:00
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: Automotive Corrosion Behavior 
Hot-dip aluminized stainless steels are widely used for automotive exhaust parts by excellent heat and corrosion resistance than ferritic stainless steels. But corrosion behavior of aluminized steels for automotive exhaust gases is considered to be different than conventional corrosive environment. Refer to evaluate the difference of corrosion behavior, two types of corrosion test, such as conven ... More
Presented by Kyung Kwan PARK on 22 Jun 2020 at 19:55
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Selective Oxidation of AHSS
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
Much more kinds of hot-dip galvanized advanced high strength steel (AHSS) were widely applied on the car body due to requirement on safety and economy. However, the galvanisability of AHSS was dramatically deteriorated on account of the selective oxidation of alloying elements, such as Si, Mn, Cr, on the external surface after being annealed. To figure out this problem, some new technology were de ... More
Presented by GUANGRUI JIANG on 23 Jun 2020 at 15:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Surface Oxidation and Metallic Reactions
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
Medium-Mn TRIP steels are promising candidates amongst the third generation advanced high strength steels (3G-AHSSs) for meeting automotive weight reduction demands without compromising passenger safety. However, the thermal processing of these steels should be compatible with the continuous galvanizing line (CGL) as it provides cost-effective, robust corrosion protection for autobody parts. Recen ... More
Presented by Kazi Mahmudul Haque BHADHON on 24 Jun 2020 at 11:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Challenges Galvanizing 2nd and 3rd Generation AHSS
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
In order to meet the demands for improved safety, fuel economy and comfort from the automotive industry, various 3rd Generation (3G) advanced high strength steels (AHSS) with the product of TS (Tensile Strength) and TEL (Total Elongation) higher than 10GPa% have been developed. To guarantee their use as auto body parts, corrosion resistance has been assured by zinc coating on the steel surface by ... More
Presented by Anirban CHAKRABORTY on 23 Jun 2020 at 17:10
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: Press Hardening of Coated Steels
The hot stamping steels are widely applied to improve the safety of automotive and reduce the weight of car body, due to the advantage to perform parts with ultra-high strength and better formability at high temperatures and exhibit no springback on the final part. The Al-Si and Zn-based coatings are developed to prevent scaling and decarburization during hot stamping processes, especially improve ... More
Presented by Kuan Hui HU on 22 Jun 2020 at 20:35
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
The steel surface condition after continuous annealing is extremely important to the quality of galvannealed coating (GA). The presence of oxides can affect the reactions at the coating/substrate interface and decrease the zinc wettability on the steel surface. To avoid oxidation, a protective atmosphere is used during the annealing. Despite this, it is possible the selective oxidation occurs and ... More
Presented by Juliana PORTO GUIMARÃES on 22 Jun 2020 at 18:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Electrogalvanizing - Process and Product Developments
Track: Electrogalvanizing - Process and Product
Electrogalvanized steel sheets are widely used for electrical appliances and OA equipment because of their suitable appearance. It is well known that the lightness, the gloss, the press formability and the corrosion resistance of electrogalvanized steel sheets change depending on the crystal morphology of deposited Zn. Because control of the Zn morphology is important to improve these properties, ... More
Presented by Kazuaki TSUCHIMOTO on 23 Jun 2020 at 16:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: LME of Resistance Spot Welded Coated Steels: Moving Toward Solutions
Track: Thermal Joining (Spot Welding) and Liquid Metal Embrittlement
The resistance spot welding is widely employed by automotive manufacturers because of its low cost and fast process. However, when the galvanized TRIP steel plates are joined by resistance spot welding, cracks are generated by liquid metal embrittlement (LME) because the substrate gets exposed to liquid zinc. These cracks deteriorate mechanical reliability of welds and limit the application of TRI ... More
Presented by Doyub KIM on 23 Jun 2020 at 11:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Pot Optimization by Numerical Simulation and Material Development
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
Cobalt based alloys are widely used in demanding environments due to their strength, wear and corrosive resistance properties at elevated temperatures. They are commonly used in molten zinc applications as bearing components on continuous galvanising lines (CGL). Despite these properties, the CGLs have to be stopped regularly to replace the Co-based bearings assemblies due to in service degradatio ... More
Presented by Luis ESCOTT on 24 Jun 2020 at 09:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Industrial Status of Galvanizing Production Technology
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
Efficient and effective operation of a hot dip galvanizing line depends from several technological aspects: mechanical, thermal, chemical, automation and control. The synergy and the harmonization among all aspects is the key to get the best performance in terms of productivity and quality. Danieli is recently achieving outstanding results in their new lines, thanks to a specific focus on the int ... More
Presented by Massimiliano SVETINA on 23 Jun 2020 at 09:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Coating Alloy Corrosion Studies
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium Coatings for Automotive Application
Novel Si-alloyed coatings provide further improvement of corrosion resistance compared to commercial ZnAlMg, yet the mechanism is still a matter of research. Latest studies focused either on binary electrochemical behavior of phases present in the coating or on accelerated and outdoor tests. To provide the link between the two and help understanding the corrosion mechanism we combined the two app ... More
Presented by Vaclav SEFL on 24 Jun 2020 at 16:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Surface Oxidation and Metallic Reactions
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
To improve the surface feature of high-Mn steel, such as wettability with liquid Zn, a functionally graded multilayer was fabricated on the top of as-cast high-Mn steel slab by laser cladding process. For the alloying material, low carbon steel powder (0.07C, 1.83Mn) was deposited. To investigate the optimum condition for wettability, four different samples were prepared: bare high-Mn steel sample ... More
Presented by Du-Rim EO on 24 Jun 2020 at 12:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: LME of Resistance Spot Welded Coated Steels: Assessments
Track: Thermal Joining (Spot Welding) and Liquid Metal Embrittlement
In zinc coated 3rd Generation advanced high strength steels (3G-AHSS), liquid metal embrittlement (LME) occurs due to liquid zinc or zinc alloy penetration along the grain, grain boundaries and pre-existing cracks of the steel sub-surface area in the presence of critical amount of external tensile stress during resistance spot welding. Due to penetration of liquid metal, cohesion between grains of ... More
Presented by Anirban CHAKRABORTY on 23 Jun 2020 at 08:50
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: Structure and Surface Analysis as well as Defect Characterization
A fast and non-destructive method based on X-ray diffraction for phase quantification in zinc alloyed coatings is presented. Post-annealed hot-dip galvanized steel sheets may contain various Fe/Zn alloys (Γ-Fe3Zn10, Γ1-Fe11Zn40, δ-Fe13Zn126, ζ-FeZn13) arranged in a layered conformation and with a predictable stacking order. Each phase within the coating has a different crystalline structure im ... More
Presented by Hugues GUERAULT on 22 Jun 2020 at 18:45
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Physical Vapour Deposition of Zn and ZnMg Coatings
Track: Vapour Deposition - Process and Product
For a practical application of PVD as a competitive coating technology in the steel industry, it is essential to have a continuously running line. A challenging processing step in such a line is the introduction of the steel strip into the vacuum and back out again. However, it is not only the steel strip that is removed from the vacuum but also the coating material, the sole purpose of the whole ... More
Presented by Edzo ZOESTBERGEN on 23 Jun 2020 at 14:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Solidification and Formation of Hot Dip Galvanized Coatings
Track: Product Modifications on Metallic Coatings (Spangle Size, Solidification Path, Interface Layers, …)
The spangle size of the galvanized strip is smaller at the edges of a coil than the one in the center due to the cooling at the edge is faster, especially for the thicker hot rolled base strip. The edge heating is an effective way of controlling the cooling rate of the edge to solve the uneven spangle size problem. In this work the FLUENT software was used to simulate the height of solidification ... More
Presented by Qingling CUI on 23 Jun 2020 at 09:10
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
A large range of digital solutions and equipment exists in order to manage quality requirements of high end products on strip processing lines. But in the end day-to-day users have to juggle between dozens of solutions and finally get lost in trying to link data from different software or finding the right tool adapted to their situation. Solving defect crises requires rather applying the right me ... More
Presented by Maxime MONNOYER on 22 Jun 2020 at 18:55
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Pot Optimization by Numerical Simulation and Material Development
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
Many surface defects of hot-dip galvanized steel strip are associated with the zinc flow inside the immersing snout. This paper presents an automated simulation workflow, which is used to study the flow patterns inside this critical plant component to give a better understanding of the fluid flow. The comprehensive numerical model of a zinc bath is the basis for this study. A prismatic domain a ... More
Presented by Harald UNGER on 24 Jun 2020 at 08:30
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: Fundamentals on Solid - Liquid Interfacial Reactions
The durability of metals in molten aluminium is of high importance for technical processes. Parts, for example rollers for fire-aluminizing, are exposed to high material abrasion through a combination of wear and metal-physical corrosion by reaction with the liquid aluminium. In this paper, long-term dipping tests were done with different materials in an Al-based metal bath. The used materials wer ... More
Presented by Tobias SIMON on 22 Jun 2020 at 18:15
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Steel-Coating Interfacial Layer and Coating Phase Developments
Track: Fundamentals on Solid - Liquid Interfacial Reactions
In the present study, we characterized the Fe–Al intermetallic phases formed in interstitial-free (IF) steel hot-dipped in a Zn–6Al–3Mg (wt%) alloy melt at different temperatures (400, 460 and 500°C) and dipping times (from 2 to 3600 s). Chemical composition analyses indicated Fe dissolution into the Zn alloy melt even after 2 s of dipping. Microstructural characterization revealed the ... More
Presented by Naoki TAKATA on 22 Jun 2020 at 14:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Surface Oxidation and Metallic Reactions
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
The development of galvanised high strength steels requires a better understanding of the gas – metal reactions during continuous annealing and their influence on steel – zinc reactivity during hot dip galvanising. Indeed, external selective oxidation, mainly formed during soaking, will hamper the formation of the inhibition layer, which is a key step for zinc wetting and further adequate coat ... More
Presented by Louis BORDIGNON on 24 Jun 2020 at 10:40
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace II - Current Topics from Preoxidation to Galvannealing
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
The recent rapid developments in the automobile industry have demanded the extensive use of galvannealed (GA) steel sheets. In particular, the development of lightweight automobiles is putting increasingly higher requirements on the strength of GA steel sheets. The galvanneal furnace, which is used for processing galvannealed steel sheets, is typically composed of the induction heating section, ho ... More
Presented by Lu WANG on 22 Jun 2020 at 14:40
Type: Oral Presentation Session: On-Line Measurements and Galvanizing Bath Control Development & Bath Al Chemistry Effects on Coating Quality and Bath Management
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
During production of galvanized products, the Hot Dip Galvanizing bath is managed with additions of ingots allowing to guaranty the stability of the bath level and composition. Hot Dip Galvanizing pot productivity (in kg/h) is then defined as the amount of materials melted in the pot during a given time. The pot productivity is generally monitored to maintain the HDG bath at a stable level and va ... More
Presented by Matthieu DIDIER on 23 Jun 2020 at 14:40
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace III - Rapid Cooling, Furnace Roll Coatings
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
In order to characterise the maximum possible cooling rate for AHSS with non oxidizing gas a new test bench has been constructed at VKI, combining 1 central round jet surrounded by 6 jets. The facility allows jet Reynolds number up to 200.000, value for which very few experimental data are available in the literature. Results are obtained for different normalised standoff distances Z/D (ratio betw ... More
Presented by Philippe PLANQUART on 22 Jun 2020 at 16:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Industrial Status of Galvanizing Production Technology
Track: New Galvanizing Lines with Innovative Solutions and New Technological Concepts
Advanced high-strength steel grades (AHSS-grades) of the third generation offer significant ecological and economic potential in the automotive industry for reducing automotive weight, improving fuel efficiency, and thus decreasing emissions. Their properties are based on special chemical compositions and microstructures. The annealing and galvanizing process of these grades challenges the plant t ... More
Presented by Fritz BRÜHL on 23 Jun 2020 at 08:30
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: New Technological Concepts
In continuous galvanizing lines (CGL), strip annealing temperature is, though not the only one, the most significant physical parameter in the annealing process and therefore is used as the main indicator for product qualification. Annealing furnaces today are mostly regulated by Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers or with the help of static based models. Those methods, though appli ... More
Presented by Cédric PÉROTTET, Francis PRADEL on 22 Jun 2020 at 18:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Electrogalvanizing - Process and Product Developments
Track: Electrogalvanizing - Process and Product
Along with the design of the body in white, the paint is very important for the unique esthetic impression of a car. Accordingly, car manufacturers put great emphasis on the quality and visual appearance of the paint. Many R&D- programs investigated the influence of roughness parameters (roughness, waviness, peak count) on the paint appearance of hot-dip galvanized steel sheet, but only few public ... More
Presented by Johann GERDENITSCH on 23 Jun 2020 at 17:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Surface Oxidation and Wettability
Track: Fundamentals on Solid - Liquid Interfacial Reactions
The main objective of the present work was to investigate the forced wetting of a partly oxidized steel by a liquid Zn - Al (0.2 wt. %) alloy. The wetting experiments are performed by means of the dispensed drop technique. The wetting is shown to be reactive with the formation of Fe2Al5Znx. The evolution of the contact angle and spreading diameter is determined as a function of spreading time. Th ... More
Presented by Marie-Laurence GIORGI on 24 Jun 2020 at 08:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Origins of Hydrogen Embrittlement
Track: Hydrogen Embrittlement 
Hydrogen embrittlement of advanced high strength steels (AHSSs) in atmospheric exposure conditions is of utmost importance for automotive industry as the application of AHSSs grows steadily due to desirable mechanical properties. Different aspects of the hydrogen embrittlement phenomenon such as hydrogen entry caused by atmospheric corrosion reactions are currently under intensive research. This ... More
Presented by Tomas PROSEK on 24 Jun 2020 at 09:50
It is well known that the steel industry is going through an important period of change, driven in part by new paradigms in the car industry and by the popularity of new alloys of competing metals. Coatings have become a strategic part of this puzzle and, now more than ever, bath composition is playing a key role. From the challenges on coatings from press hardened steels to the great potential of ... More
Presented by Alexandre NADEAU on 23 Jun 2020 at 14:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: On-line Measurements - Cleanliness, Austenite Fraction and Coating Defects
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
During the manufacturing of the modern high strength steels, it is very important to know the austenite level compared to ferrite at given positions in the line during the steel production. Indeed, ensuring the constancy of the austenite fraction is mandatory for the constancy of the mechanical properties of the final product. There are several positions in the line where it is essential to know ... More
Presented by Olivier HERBIET on 23 Jun 2020 at 11:40
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
With ever increasing targets on productivity, unpredictable down times caused by a weld break can become an important problem. Lately, partly because of drivers like the rise of multiple high strength steel grades and the retirement of highly experienced operators, we have seen CGL lines experience an increase in weld break events. Technologies like pressure sensors, current sensors, cameras and p ... More
Presented by Choquet MARC on 22 Jun 2020 at 19:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Bath dross analysis and coating characterization
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
“Dross” is solid intermetallic compound generated in molten zinc baths of CGL, and it can be the cause of surface defects of hot dip galvanized steel sheets. Their behavior in the molten zinc such as thermochemical stability is well investigated before, but its crystallization or growth behavior is not understood yet because their reaction occurs in high-temperature and opaque molten zinc. In ... More
Presented by Ryo SASAKI on 22 Jun 2020 at 16:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace I - Temperature Control Challenges
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
The main focus of the proposed paper is on the design and efficient operation of metallic recirculating radiant tubes installed with recuperative or regenerative burners in vertical strip galvanizing lines. Premature tube failures may result in loss of production capacity arising from reduced heat input or, worse, unplanned plant shutdowns. As a galvanizing line furnace equipped with around 200 ra ... More
Presented by Nico SCHMITZ on 22 Jun 2020 at 12:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: HDG Coating Formation & Dross Management
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
The control of Al content in the bath of molten Zn in Continuous Galvanizing Lines (CGL) allows to improve the surface quality of coated products, particularly in the case of galvanized (GI) coating, to minimize the precipitation of Fe-Zn intermetallic particles in the bath, named dross particles, and to improve operational efficiency by increasing the process velocity. The control of Al content ... More
Presented by Henrique ELEUTERIO on 23 Jun 2020 at 16:10
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
This paper presents a CFD simulation study of the influence of roughness on the flow near stationary and rotating bath equipment. During production, the roughness of bath rolls is significantly increased by dross build-up. The latter is one major reason for undesired maintenance cycles. Understanding the interaction between roughness and zinc flow facilitates the interpretation of dross build-up g ... More
Presented by Georg REISS on 22 Jun 2020 at 19:45
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Electrogalvanizing - Process and Product Developments
Track: Electrogalvanizing - Process and Product
Electro-galvanizing of steel strip represents an important industrial process of corrosion protection and surface finishing. Electro-galvanized steel sheets are used e.g. in the automotive industry, for household appliances, and in the electronics industry. The zinc coatings show a very homogenous microstructure, a good spot weldability, as well as excellent surface appearance and painting adhesio ... More
Presented by Marc DEBEAUX on 23 Jun 2020 at 16:30
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
The work studied the effect that processing parameters have on microstructure and mechanical properties of dual-phase steel grade 980. This was achieved by subjecting steel coupons to various annealing cycles featuring different heating rates, cooling rates and intercritical annealing temperatures using a dilatometer. Following heat treatments, the microstructures and mechanical properties of the ... More
Presented by Myriam BROCHU on 22 Jun 2020 at 17:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Coating Alloy Corrosion Studies
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium Coatings for Automotive Application
Zinc and zinc-based alloys are the most important coating materials for corrosion protection of steel. The coatings are deposited by either electroplating or hot-dip galvanizing. Many research and development activities are still ongoing regarding the application of Zn and Zn-alloy coatings. In the last two decades, it turned out that zinc-magnesium (Zn-Mg) and zinc-magnesium-aluminum (ZM) show im ... More
Presented by Dominique THIERRY on 24 Jun 2020 at 16:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-AlSi & PHS-ZnFe: Controlling Surface Properties
Track: Press Hardening of Zn-Based Coatings
For galvanized press hardening steels, a low and homogeneous surface resistance is important to ensure good welding behavior for body in white assembly. Surface resistance and oxide composition was studied for steel grade 20MnB8 with different coatings (GI vs. GA) and different annealing times. The results were also compared to standard steel grade 22MnB5 coated with GI. Oxide composition was dete ... More
Presented by Ernst Dietmar SCHACHINGER on 23 Jun 2020 at 11:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Solidification and Formation of Hot Dip Galvanized Coatings
Track: Product Modifications on Metallic Coatings (Spangle Size, Solidification Path, Interface Layers, …)
This study was carried out to improve the surface quality of galvanized steel, which are widely used in exposed automotive panels. To control zinc grain called as spangle that occurs during solidification of galvanized steel, In view of the metallurgical aspects, we considered a new method increasing the surface area of full hard steel associated with nucleation of molten zinc in the solidificatio ... More
Presented by TAE JUN PARK on 23 Jun 2020 at 08:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Origins of Hydrogen Embrittlement
Track: Hydrogen Embrittlement 
In advanced high strength automotive steels, small amounts of diffusible hydrogen can lead to a deterioration of mechanical performances, especially a loss of ductility, in the simultaneous presence of internal stresses and of a sensitive microstructure. In the hot-dip galvanizing process, hydrogen is mainly absorbed during high temperature operations in hydrogen-containing atmospheres before hot- ... More
Presented by Mélodie MANDY on 24 Jun 2020 at 08:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace III - Rapid Cooling, Furnace Roll Coatings
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
Hearth rolls in continuous annealing furnace of CGL sometimes cause the trouble that some small protrusions grow up on the surface. Such troubles are called as “build-up” or “pick-up” and it can be a cause of surface defects of steel strips such as scratches, dents and so on. A lot of tentative theory is told about “build-up” as below: (1) Producing High-alloyed steel strips accelera ... More
Presented by Sho KATSURA on 22 Jun 2020 at 16:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Automotive Applications - ZnAlMg Coatings
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium Coatings for Automotive Application
In recent years, steel industries have been various studies to apply ZnMgAl coatings to automobiles. Initially, the solidification experiment of ZnMgAl coating on steel was investigated by using *in-situ* real time x-ray scattering, we confirmed that the solidification prceeds in the order of Zn, Zn/MgZn2 binary eutectic and Zn/MgZn2/Al ternary eutectic phases. Also, we evaluated the properties su ... More
Presented by Tae Chul KIM on 22 Jun 2020 at 11:10
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: Structure and Surface Analysis as well as Defect Characterization
Little Bright spot defects on galvanized steel sheets were studied by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope(SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in this study. The research shows that the coating thickness of little bright spot defect is much lower than normal area which caused by the substrate defect justly under little bright spot, and when skin passed, the little bright spot ... More
Presented by Lei CUI on 22 Jun 2020 at 18:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Bath dross analysis and coating characterization
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
With the increasing use of galvanized high-strength steel sheets in automobiles, the surface quality requirements of galvanized sheets are also increasing. When hot-dip galvanized C-Si-Mn dual-phase steel (such as DP600~DP1000) is produced, a serious orange peel-like rough surface defect appears on the surface of the steel sheet, which is mainly found in the middle area of the middle section of th ... More
Presented by Lei CUI on 22 Jun 2020 at 17:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Origins of Hydrogen Embrittlement
Track: Hydrogen Embrittlement 
One of the most important aspects for a material used in automotive industry is the reliability in service regarding corrosion resistance, safety and functionality. However, hydrogen embrittlement can cause a dramatic deterioration of mechanical properties, especially in case of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). Thus, it is essential to clarify the mechanisms of hydrogen insertion into the mat ... More
Presented by Ines TRAXLER on 24 Jun 2020 at 09:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Physical Vapour Deposition of Zn and ZnMg Coatings
Track: Vapour Deposition - Process and Product
Jet Vapour Deposition (JVD) technology is industrialized at ArcelorMittal since mid of 2016. This technology, developed in partnership with CRM Group, constitutes an attractive technical and economic alternative to Electro-Galvanizing (EG) deposition process. JVD is a vacuum deposition process fully compatible with high line speeds, which allows the deposition on all kinds of steels of pure zinc c ... More
Presented by Pace SERGIO on 23 Jun 2020 at 14:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Selective Oxidation of AHSS
Track: Fundamentals on Gas - Metal Interfacial Reactions
One of the challenges on the development of new steel products is the possibility to predict or control surface behaviour through-process. The lack of prediction, together with the difficulty on simulating the behaviour of the surface in pilot processing, lead to the evaluation of the product after costly industrial trials. Therefore, knowledge on the kinetics of oxide formation on steels is of si ... More
Presented by Soroush AGHAEIAN on 23 Jun 2020 at 14:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: LME of Resistance Spot Welded Coated Steels: Assessments
Track: Thermal Joining (Spot Welding) and Liquid Metal Embrittlement
Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) cracks are a critical issue for the implementation of Zn-coated advanced high strength steel alloys in automotive body-in-white components. One challenge is the ability to produce and replicate these cracks in spot weld trials to measure their influence on mechanical properties. Some studies have employed variations in weld schedule and electrode alignment to produ ... More
Presented by Omar GARCIA-RINCON on 23 Jun 2020 at 09:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Non-Automotive Applications: ZnAlMg Coatings
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium and Zinc-Aluminum Coatings for Non-Automotive Application
ZnAlMg coatings produced by hot-dip galvanization process have shown superior corrosion resistant, anti-galling and wear performances. Nevertheless, currently these coatings exhibit lower cracking resistance and ductility compared to conventional galvanized zinc (GI) coatings on steel sheets during forming processes. In this study, mechanical properties and cracking behavior of ZnAlMg galvanized s ... More
Presented by Masoud AHMADI on 22 Jun 2020 at 16:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Physical Vapour Deposition of Zn and ZnMg Coatings
Track: New Technological Concepts
Physical Vapor Deposition have now entered the panel of technologies for fabricating metallic Zn-rich coatings on steel. We have recently demonstrated that General Vapor-Phase Galvanizing can coat complex-shape steel articles after fabrication with a fully alloyed Fe-Zn coating. Surface activation is a key step of the process because the coating results from the reaction of zinc vapor with s ... More
Presented by Etienne PETIT on 23 Jun 2020 at 15:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Steel-Coating Interfacial Layer and Coating Phase Developments
Track: Structure and Surface Analysis as well as Defect Characterization
Zinc-coated (galvanized) steel is widely used in applications in automotive and building industries. Zinc is coated to improve the aqueous corrosion resistance of steel by a shielding mechanism called galvanic protection, in which the substrate steel is cathodically protected by the sacrificial corrosion of the zinc coating because zinc is less noble (electronegative) than iron. The galvanized ste ... More
Presented by Haruyuki INUI on 22 Jun 2020 at 15:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Coating Microstructure Analysis and Steel/Coating Surface Reactivity
Track: Structure and Surface Analysis as well as Defect Characterization
---------- Houssem Eddine CHAIEB a,*, Vincent MAUREL a, Samuel FOREST a, Kais AMMAR a, Alain KÖSTER a, Franck NOZAHIC b, Joost DE STRYCKER b, Jean-Michel MATAIGNE c a Le Centre des Matériaux, MINES ParisTech, 63-65 Rue Henri Auguste Desbruères, 91100 Corbeil-Essonnes, France b ArcelorMittal Global R&D Gent, J.F. Kennedylaan 3, B-9060 Zelzate, Belgium c ArcelorMittal Global R&D Mai ... More
Presented by Houssem Eddine CHAIEB on 22 Jun 2020 at 11:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Surface Oxidation and Wettability
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
Effects of Si content on the selective oxidation and reactive wetting of two grades of Fe-0.1C-2Mn-xSi (wt.%) (x=1.3 and 1.7 wt.%) advanced high strength steel arising from continuous galvanizing heat treatments were investigated in this research. Experimental steels were intercritically annealed for 120 s in a N2-5 vol.% H2 gas atmosphere at dew points of –50 °C, –30 C and +5 C and con ... More
Presented by Ghazal SEYED MOUSAVI on 24 Jun 2020 at 08:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace II - Current Topics from Preoxidation to Galvannealing
Track: New Technological Concepts
Today, steel producers find in their portfolio many kind of steels, including the new high strength steels, each with their specific heat cycle. Adding to this the final customer specifications, and on the top of it the requirements of various sizes, the coil schedule faced day-by-day on production level stretches into an extensive mix. A modern galvanizing line must be a flexible tool able to cop ... More
Presented by Alexandre LHOEST on 22 Jun 2020 at 15:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-ZnFe: New Steel & Coating Developments
Track: Thermal Joining (Spot Welding) and Liquid Metal Embrittlement
Grain boundary weakening caused by grain boundary wetting is a potential precursor for liquid metal embrittlement in a Zn coated press hardening 20MnB8 steel. Galvanized press hardened steel samples, deformed by bending, and not deformed (flat) steel samples were analyzed by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) ... More
Presented by Martin ARNDT on 24 Jun 2020 at 16:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-AlSi & PHS-ZnFe: Controlling Surface Properties
Track: Press Hardening of Zn-Based Coatings
Insights into the structure of surface oxides on Zn-coated press-hardened steel (PHS) are indispensable for further processing like welding or adhesive bonding. The main oxide on top of galvanized steel is Al2O3 from the primary galvanizing process. This oxide is strongly altered during final austenitization annealing before hot-forming respectively press-hardening, depending on the annealing time ... More
Presented by Wolfgang GADERBAUER on 23 Jun 2020 at 11:40
Type: Oral Presentation Session: On-line Measurements - Cleanliness, Austenite Fraction and Coating Defects
Track: New Technological Concepts
This paper presents the results of the development of an innovative methodology for the online measurement of austenite fraction formed during intercritical annealing in HDG lines. The approach is based on the definition of the analytical equation (Feral equation) relating the austenite fraction formed at soaking temperature with the epitaxial ferrite growth occurring during the reverse austenito- ... More
Presented by Alessandro FERRAIUOLO on 23 Jun 2020 at 11:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-AlSi & PHS-ZnFe: Controlling Surface Properties
Track: Press Hardening of Coated Steels
The Press Hardened Steels (PHS) offer unique weight saving opportunities to the automotive market, allowing to reach extremely high mechanical properties (until 2000 MPa) on complex parts with a well-controlled geometry. Since 2001, pre-coated PHS are available. AlSi coated PHS are the mostly used worldwide with more than 75% of the hot stamping lines in the world dedicated to them. This predomina ... More
Presented by Tiago MACHADO on 23 Jun 2020 at 10:40
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: Consumer Electronics Application  - Forming, Joining, Painting and Final Properties 
In the past, both galvanized (GI) and galvannealed (GA) steel sheets with white color coating produced by continuous coating line (CCL) has been widely used for home appliance such as refrigerator, washing machine and air conditioner. On the other hand, in premium home appliance market, either mechanically polished or physical vapor deposited (PVD) stainless steel sheets was used due to their aest ... More
Presented by Moon Hi HONG on 22 Jun 2020 at 20:25
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium and Zinc-Aluminum Coatings for Non-Automotive Application
ZnAlMg-based alloy hot-dip galvanized steel sheet, as known, has high corrosion resistance. Also, several types of composition systems are commercially produced and applied to various fields. However, these steel sheets characteristically contain up to 3% magnesium. The improvement of corrosion resistance is the attractive point of the product and the goal to pursue forever. In recent years, there ... More
Presented by HEUNG YUN KIM on 22 Jun 2020 at 20:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Industrial Status of Galvanizing Production Technology
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
To ensure a constant high productivity and quality for the newest AHSS, Andritz developed a new generation of its Metris Advanced Furnace Control. It consists of a modular design with a newly developed cooling model and a brand new multi model predictive control. The precise physical model for all heating and cooling sections act as virtual sensors , which gives a good insight of the temperature d ... More
Presented by Martin FEIN on 23 Jun 2020 at 09:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace III - Rapid Cooling, Furnace Roll Coatings
Track: Process Technology - Pre/Post-Treatment (Strip Cleaning, Skin Passing, Passivation, Oiling)
Thermal spray cermet coatings are successfully applied on furnace rolls in continuous annealing and galvanizing lines. However, when processing HSS with high manganese and/or high silicon content, oxide pickups can be formed on the rolls working in the different furnace zones. The aim of this study was to acquire knowledge on the pickup mechanisms and the chemical interactions occurring between ... More
Presented by Nicoletta ZACCHETTI on 22 Jun 2020 at 17:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace I - Temperature Control Challenges
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
In a hot-dip galvanizing line for the production of zinc-coated steel strips, the heat treatment of the strip is an important process step. In order to achieve the desired material and surface properties, the strip has to be heated according to a predefined temperature trajectory. From the viewpoint of control, this is a challenging task, in particular in transient furnace operation, e.g. when a w ... More
Presented by Martin NIEDERER on 22 Jun 2020 at 10:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Plenary Talk 4 -USA
Automotive industry requirements for steels capable of enabling increasingly fuel-efficient vehicles continue to drive process technology developments for North American hot-dip and electro-galvanizing lines. Third-generation zinc and zinc alloy-coated grades have reached commercialization; higher-capability grades continue to be developed. Zinc-coated hot press forming grades have reached commerc ... More
Presented by Dr. Frank Erik GOODWIN on 22 Jun 2020 at 09:40
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace I - Temperature Control Challenges
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
The conventional configuration for strip temperature measurements on continuous horizontal annealing furnaces is a single pyrometer pointing down a water-cooled sight tube positioned normal to the strip surface. When on-line testing of different make and model pyrometers is desired, the control pyrometer has to be removed, which often restricts the timing and duration of the test. The desire to ... More
Presented by Joyce NIEDRINGHAUS on 22 Jun 2020 at 11:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Pot Optimization by Numerical Simulation and Material Development
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
Injecting NHx gas into the snout on hot galvanizing line is widely used. In this study,Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was used to analyze the effect of some process parameter on NHx gas velocity, dew point and temperature distribution in the snout. Results indicated that higher gas temperature by pre-heating and lower injection point are key to homogenize temperature distribution i ... More
Presented by Xiangyu LI on 24 Jun 2020 at 09:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace III - Rapid Cooling, Furnace Roll Coatings
Track: Fundamentals on Gas - Metal Interfacial Reactions
In the preparation process for hot dip galvanising of a steel strip exiting the annealing furnace, it is necessary to achieve appropriate process temperature. For this purpose, a jet cooler with recirculating shielding gas is used, utilizing distribution pipes with nozzles to create the appropriate gas flow field. The flow patterns of the nozzles are interacting with each other creating locally in ... More
Presented by Christoph SPIJKER on 22 Jun 2020 at 16:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: LME of Resistance Spot Welded Coated Steels: Assessments
Track: Thermal Joining (Spot Welding) and Liquid Metal Embrittlement
Corrosion protected galvanized advanced high strength steels with high ductility (AHSS HD) like the investigated dual phase steel (DP1200HD) tend to show an elevated risk of liquid metal cracking (LMC) during resistance spot welding (RSW). LMC is an intergranular cracking mechanism driven by temperature, tensile stresses, plastic deformation and the presence of liquid zinc. Crack initiation and gr ... More
Presented by Konstantin Manuel PRABITZ on 23 Jun 2020 at 09:50
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: Fundamentals on Solid - Liquid Interfacial Reactions
The present paper presents a front tracking interface numerical model for the simulation of facetted crystal growth, taken into account the incidence of flow. This model was applied to the build-up growth (Fe2Al5 faceted crystals) occurring during the production of Zn coated steel sheets (Galvanizing industry) on the bath hardware. In the galvanizing industry their occurrence is a problem and the ... More
Presented by Georg REISS on 22 Jun 2020 at 19:30
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics method was used to study the influence of the addition of zinc aluminum ingot in a zinc pot. The simulation results show that the natural convection effect changes the flow pattern of the zinc bath around the zinc ignot side, and the cold zinc liquid flows to the bottom of the zinc pot, and a large eddy is formed behind the zinc pot; The whole temper ... More
Presented by Jianfeng HE on 22 Jun 2020 at 19:35
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace II - Current Topics from Preoxidation to Galvannealing
Track: New Galvanizing Lines with Innovative Solutions and New Technological Concepts
The floated zinc dross is easily accumulated around zinc pot walls (backward wall is furnace nose) during continuous hot dip galvanizing. the main cause is that the accumulated zinc dross is lack of tangential flowing along zinc pot walls. Aiming at the distribution characteristics of the floated zinc dross on the top of zinc bath in hot-dip galvanizing pot, a new method called by Electromagnetic ... More
Presented by Mr. Xiao Guang HOU on 22 Jun 2020 at 14:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Modeling Bearings Wear Rate and Enhanced Pot Roll Coatings & HDG Coating Weight Control by Numerical Simulation and Modeling
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
Modern automotive grade continuous galvanising lines (CGL) are presented with a significant risk when considering online trials of new galvanising bath submerged journal bearings. Such trials of submerged bearings can pose significant financial loss should untested bearing components fail, resulting in unplanned maintenance stops. This limits opportunity for hardware improvements on modern CGLs wh ... More
Presented by Rhys FAULKNER on 24 Jun 2020 at 11:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Coating Microstructure Analysis and Steel/Coating Surface Reactivity
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
Under certain conditions of oxygen shortage and high temperatures as could occur after coiling a hot-rolled strip, alloying elements with high oxygen affinity can diffuse and oxidise preferably along the grain boundaries. This selective internal oxidation can be increased by additional heat induced from phase transformations in the coiled state and depends on steel composition. This diffusion to t ... More
Presented by Nils KÖPPER on 22 Jun 2020 at 11:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-ZnFe: Liquid and Vapour Metal Induced Embrittlement
Track: Press Hardening of Zn-Based Coatings
Zn-coated press hardened steels are in high demand in the automotive industry because their high strength enhances passenger safety while supplying robust cathodic corrosion protection. However, micro-crack formation after thermomechanical processing is an issue that limits full deployment. Thereby, the objective of this research was to determine the mechanism for micro-cracking in Zn-coated PHS b ... More
Presented by Joseph R. MCDERMID on 24 Jun 2020 at 15:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-AlSi & PHS-ZnFe: Controlling Surface Properties
Track: Press Hardening of Coated Steels
When heating steel blanks with different sheet thicknesses within prior to a hot press forming process, local heating rates may differ significantly. Therefore, the process window for heating the blanks is narrow, especially when aluminium-silicon (AlSi) coated material is used. The thicker part of the blank determines the minimum furnace dwell time for alloying of the coating to achieve sufficien ... More
Presented by Friedrich LUTHER on 23 Jun 2020 at 11:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: HDG Coating Weight Control by Innovative Technological Concepts
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
X-ray diffraction is a technique, which is widely used in material analysis. It is typically utilized in the laboratory to reveal information about the microstructure of materials. IMS developed in cooperation with SMS group and Drever International a new measuring system, which applies the x-ray diffraction technology to the harsh environment of a production line. The new system provides a cont ... More
Presented by Horst KRAUTHÄUSER on 24 Jun 2020 at 17:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: HDG Coating Formation & Dross Management
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium and Zinc-Aluminum Coatings for Non-Automotive Application
Currently, the optimum aluminum content in the alloy for Aluminum-zinc coating considered wt.55%. In addition to aluminum and zinc, the alloy contains 1.6 wt.% Silicon, which is introduced to suppress the exothermic reaction of the melt with iron. Cold-rolled steel coils with such a coating, has gained wide popularity and produced in many countries of the world. A coating with 55% aluminum has hi ... More
Presented by Sergey YASHCHUK on 23 Jun 2020 at 16:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Solidification and Formation of Hot Dip Galvanized Coatings
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium and Zinc-Aluminum Coatings for Non-Automotive Application
Hot-dip Zn-Al alloy coated steel sheets such as 55%Al-Zn-1.6%Si and Zn-5%Al coatings are widely used in the construction industry because of their higher corrosion resistance than zinc coatings. It is well known that the corrosion resistance of hot dip Zn-Al alloy coatings depends on the microstructure formed through solidification process1). Thus, controlling the solidification microstructure is ... More
Presented by Takuya MITSUNOBU on 23 Jun 2020 at 09:30
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: Fundamentals on Solid - Liquid Interfacial Reactions
Hot dip galvanized steel is widely used in the field of automobile since the galvanized coating layer protects mother steel from corrosion. The molten Zn bath commonly contains small fraction of Al to suppress the preferential formation of the brittle Fe-Zn intermetallic compounds that often provoke flaking off the coating layer during stamping or forming of coated steel. It is well known that min ... More
Presented by Tetsuya HAMADA on 22 Jun 2020 at 18:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-ZnFe: New Steel & Coating Developments
Track: Press Hardening of Zn-Based Coatings
In the last years, press-hardening steels have contributed to the automotive industry successfully to meet the increasing regulations for reducing fuel consumption and stringent greenhouse gas emissions while improving passenger safety by manufacturing lightweight car body parts. Zn-Fe coating is an alternative to prevent corrosion or even enhance the corrosion resistance in these steels. However, ... More
Presented by Luciano Pessanha MOREIRA on 24 Jun 2020 at 17:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: HDG Coating Weight Control by Innovative Technological Concepts
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
The paper adress the problem of crossbow correction with a 3 pot roll system. in order to estimate the curvature radius of the strip wrapping the rolls, an elastic assumption is taken. It comes that a single position of the stabilizer or Sink rol cannot correct all the prodcuts, especially the thicker ones
Presented by MICHEL DUBOIS on 24 Jun 2020 at 16:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Electrogalvanizing - Process and Product Developments
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
In industrial electro galvanizing lines, the performance of the dimensionally stable anodes (Ti + IrOx) is a crucial factor for product quality. Ageing of the anodes causes worsened zinc coating distribution on the steel strip and a significant increase in production costs due to a higher resistivity of the anodes. Up to now, the end of the anode lifetime has been detected by visual inspection eve ... More
Presented by Mario LOVRIC on 23 Jun 2020 at 17:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: On-line Measurements - Cleanliness, Austenite Fraction and Coating Defects
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
Over the past two years, four CGLs have installed an online, surface cleanliness monitor system utilizing a non-contact, laser ablation technique to evaluate the contamination layer on the moving sheet. The CGL operators using the system obtain unprecedented detail about the sheet’s surface cleanliness along the entire length of each coil. The system has been improved over the last two years ... More
Presented by Eric ALMQUIST on 23 Jun 2020 at 11:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Modeling Bearings Wear Rate and Enhanced Pot Roll Coatings & HDG Coating Weight Control by Numerical Simulation and Modeling
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
After some review of typical surface defects observed in CGL running at low speed and sometimes heavy coating, the solution of the Navier Stokes equation in that process window is analyzed and discussed. The liquid velocity profile is computed from NO wiping situation to classical wiping. The question of back flow in relation with line speed and coating weight is addressed. From the analysis, the ... More
Presented by MICHEL DUBOIS on 24 Jun 2020 at 11:40
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Physical Vapour Deposition of Zn and ZnMg Coatings
Track: Vapour Deposition - Process and Product
POSCO has installed the full width PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) pilot plant as a final achievement in the development stage. There are three elementary sections responsible for vacuum-locks (vacuum strip transportation system with rolls and sealing parts), plasma pretreatment, high-deposition rate coating source by induction heating and air-to-vacuum raw material feeding system for continuous p ... More
Presented by Woo-Sung JUNG on 23 Jun 2020 at 15:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: LME of Resistance Spot Welded Coated Steels: Moving Toward Solutions
Track: Thermal Joining (Spot Welding) and Liquid Metal Embrittlement
Third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) were developed as automotive structural materials capable of enhancing vehicle fuel efficiency and crashworthiness. The use of zinc (Zn) coated AHSS is limited by Zn-assisted liquid metal embrittlement (LME) that leads to surface cracking during high temperature processing. It has been reported that AHSSs are generally more sensitive to Zn-ass ... More
Presented by Diptak BHATTACHARYA on 23 Jun 2020 at 11:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Steel-Coating Interfacial Layer and Coating Phase Developments
Track: Structure and Surface Analysis as well as Defect Characterization
While mechanical properties of zinc coatings are well-known and have been studied in detail during the last decades [1,2], the fundamental behaviour of coatings of zinc- or aluminium-based alloys is much less understood. Understanding the contribution of the different micro-phases in their complex solidification structure requires new approaches. Nanoindentation coupled with data post-processi ... More
Presented by Franck NOZAHIC on 22 Jun 2020 at 14:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Solidification and Formation of Hot Dip Galvanized Coatings
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
New generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are utilized in automobiles to reduce weight while enhancing fuel efficiency and crash performance. Zn-based coatings are commonly applied on sheet steels to achieve sacrificial corrosion protection. Galvanizing of AHSS is challenging due to the relatively high application temperature of these coatings (460 °C for hot-dip galvanizing). High appl ... More
Presented by Rohit BARDAPURKAR on 23 Jun 2020 at 09:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Surface Oxidation and Wettability
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
Two medium-Mn advanced high strength steels, a reference 0.1C-6Mn-2Si alloy and a 0.05 wt pct Sn added grade, were hot-dip galvanized in a conventional Zn-0.2Al and a Zn-2Al-2Mg bath in order to compare the reactive wetting behavior of these model third generation alloys. Despite being known for providing superior corrosion protection and higher performance, the steels immersed in the Zn-Al-Mg bat ... More
Presented by Maedeh POURMAJIDIAN on 24 Jun 2020 at 09:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Absorption of Hydrogen & Fundamentals on Atmospheric Corrosion and Corrosion Modelling
Track: Fundamentals on Atmospheric Corrosion and Corrosion Modelling
A compact and autonomous corrosion sensor using the principle of electrical resistance variations of its metallic sensitive tracks has been used for different applications under atmospheric corrosion conditions. The measurements of the corrosion rate can be performed in-situ both under laboratory and field exposures. From the results, it is possible to better understand the atmospheric corrosion o ... More
Presented by Dominique THIERRY on 24 Jun 2020 at 11:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Plenary Talk 2 - Korea
Recent progress of galvanizing facilities and new products activities are described regarding to automotive, appliance and construction markets in South Korea. Especially, several corrosion resistant Zn-Al-Mg coated steels have been developed for automotive, home appliance and construction. In addtion new functional coated steels and PVD products will be introduced briefly.
Presented by Jong_Sang KIM on 22 Jun 2020 at 09:00
Zinc coated high strength steel sheets are applied to the automotive part due to the superior corrosion resistance and the lightweight of car body. The hydrogen absorption into the high strength steel sheet has been known to be promoted by zinc coating during corrosion, however, its behavior has not been clarified. In this study, the effect of corrosion status of zinc coating on the hydrogen absor ... More
Presented by Kentaro HATA on 24 Jun 2020 at 10:40
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: Thermal Joining (Spot Welding) and Liquid Metal Embrittlement
Abstract: In this paper, Al-Si coated and bare hot stamping steels with the tensile strength of 2GPa were resistance spot welded.The welding current, properties and mechanical performance of the joints were compared. The coating slightly affected the welding current required for the attaining conventionally acceptable weld fusion zone size of 4*square(t), and the welding current range. The energy ... More
Presented by Mingsheng XIA on 22 Jun 2020 at 20:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-ZnFe: Liquid and Vapour Metal Induced Embrittlement
Track: Press Hardening of Coated Steels
Zinc coatings offer the advantage of a galvanic corrosion protection instead of a conventional barrier corrosion protection. Thus zinc coatings prevent the corrosion of the steel substrate even in the case of a damaged coating layer. It is therefore of interest to use zinc coatings in the automobile industry particularly for components of the body in white. These components are often produced by t ... More
Presented by Melanie TOMASCH on 24 Jun 2020 at 14:40
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: New Galvanizing Lines with Innovative Solutions and New Technological Concepts
The production of galvanized coils requires stable operating conditions for achieving sustainable product quality. In order to reach stable operation conditions for high quality products it is essential to prepare the production process according certain constraints. Those constraints include building schedules with a coffin shape ensuring that width and thickness changes are within certain limits ... More
Presented by Markus RINGHOFER on 22 Jun 2020 at 19:05
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Bath dross analysis and coating characterization
Track: Structure and Surface Analysis as well as Defect Characterization
Hot-dip galvanized steel sheets (HDG) are one of the popular automotive materials because it is easier to satisfy both high corrosion resistance and low manufacturing cost due to the ease of controlling the thickness of the Zn coating layer than other Zn based coating. Generally, less than 1 mass% of Al is added to molten Zn bath in the HDG manufacturing process in order to decrease dross and to p ... More
Presented by Katsuya HOSHINO on 22 Jun 2020 at 16:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Selective Oxidation of AHSS
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
The selective oxidation of Boron in bake hardening steel sheet is investigated in a hot dip process simulator for a typical DFF RTF cycle with two levels of pre-oxidation. The time in the RTF (85, 125 and 220 seconds), the RTF dew point (-40, -25 and -10 oC) and the hydrogen content (1, 3 and 5 %) of the RTF atmosphere are varied. The samples were analysed with FEG-SEM, EDX and GDOES. A few cases ... More
Presented by Roel MALLENS on 23 Jun 2020 at 15:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Selective Oxidation of AHSS
Track: Structure and Surface Analysis as well as Defect Characterization
The study presented here focuses on the selective oxidation of Fe-Mn (1wt.%) binary alloy. The samples were annealed by means of a laboratory furnace with a temperature profile relevant to the galvanizing line practice. The sample was first heated to 800°C at a rate of approximately 6°Cs<sup>-1</sup>. It was kept at that temperature for 60 s before being cooled to room temperature. The gas atmos ... More
Presented by Nathalie RUSCASSIER on 23 Jun 2020 at 14:40
Type: Oral Presentation Session: On-line Measurements - Cleanliness, Austenite Fraction and Coating Defects
Track: Structure and Surface Analysis as well as Defect Characterization
The surface quality of a finished product on a galvanizing line is a very important criteria, especially for automotive and home appliance exposed products. To control it, automatic surface inspection systems (ASIS) have been developed since many years and are installed on all galvanizing lines dealing with high product quality. A highly performant ASIS from Primetals Technologies has been develop ... More
Presented by Yvon FONTAINE on 23 Jun 2020 at 12:00
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
In the present study Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were used to design a new air-knife for the hot-dip galvanizing simulator of Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung in order to improve the flow field inside the knife and at the nozzle exit. The overall objectives were to improve the surface quality of coated samples and enhance coating control capabilities compared to the existing air-knife by opt ... More
Presented by Tobias KLINKBERG on 22 Jun 2020 at 19:10
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: Process Technology - Pre/Post-Treatment (Strip Cleaning, Skin Passing, Passivation, Oiling)
In the continuous hot dip galvanizing process, the aluminium content and its fluctuation in the zinc pot have a very important impact on the product quality.In this study, the computational fluid dynamics method was used to study the dissolution and diffusion behavior of zinc pot after adding zinc ingot. The simulation results show that the natural convection effect changes the flow pattern of the ... More
Presented by JIANFENG HE on 22 Jun 2020 at 19:40
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Furnace II - Current Topics from Preoxidation to Galvannealing
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
Galvanizing lines often apply pre-oxidation and reduction in their annealing cycle to ensure successful galvanizing of Advanced High Strength Steels with good coating appearance and excellent adhesion. Tata Steel uses flash pre-oxidation by means of an oxygen bar, by which an oxygen-rich gas mixture is blown onto the steel strip. The thickness of the Fe-oxide layer formed during the pre-oxidation ... More
Presented by Marga ZUIJDERWIJK on 22 Jun 2020 at 14:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Pot Optimization by Numerical Simulation and Material Development
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
Accurate and stable snout temperature can improve the stability of Zn pot temperature and bath chemistry, avoid dross related defects, reduce Zn dust formation, and achieve consistent galvannealing performance. In order to make sure the reliability/accuracy of the snout pyrometer (multiwavelength) for various steel grades (e.g. DP600, DP780 and DP980 etc.) and to monitor the deterioration of the p ... More
Presented by Weimin ZHONG on 24 Jun 2020 at 08:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Solidification and Formation of Hot Dip Galvanized Coatings
Track: Product Modifications on Metallic Coatings (Spangle Size, Solidification Path, Interface Layers, …)
In this paper we present spangle nucleation and refinement theory in 55%Al-Zn coated steel. We propose that the precipitation of 5c intermetallic phase, (Fe5Si2Al20+Zn) in the coating overlay is the dominant mechanism for spangle refinement. Under normal process conditions, when the strip emerges from the bath, the Fe in solution in the coating overlay diffuses to the alloy layer and contribute ... More
Presented by Nega SETARGEW on 23 Jun 2020 at 08:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Bath dross analysis and coating characterization
Track: Structure and Surface Analysis as well as Defect Characterization
In a molten zinc bath in a continuous galvanizing line, top dross particles crystallize as Fe-Al-Zn intermetallic compounds. These par¬ticles easily adhere to the steel sheets causing surface defects. Therefore, controlling the top dross particles is a key issue. The present study focused on the structural and mechanical characterizations of top dross particles using an electron probe micro analy ... More
Presented by Takeshi KONISHI on 22 Jun 2020 at 16:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Automotive Applications - Zn and ZnFe Coatings
Track: Automobile Application - Forming, Joining, Painting and Final Properties  
In recent years, high-strength galvannealed steel sheet is widely used for automotive for the sake of lighten its weight and enhance the collision safety performance. While high-strength galvannealed steel sheet has outstanding mechanical properties, it has less formability. On the stamping process, high-strength steel sheet requires high punching force and difficult to have good dimensional accur ... More
Presented by Takayuki MAEDA on 22 Jun 2020 at 14:40
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Coating Alloy and Modification effects on Corrosion Behaviour
Track: Structure and Surface Analysis as well as Defect Characterization
This study investigates the effect of manganese addition in the galvanized zinc coating on steel. Manganese possesses more negative electrochemical potential than both zinc and iron. In addition, manganese can also provide sacrificial protection to iron like zinc. A stepwise process was used to prepare the required bath composition for coating due to a very high melting point of manganese than ... More
Presented by Srinivasulu GRANDHI on 24 Jun 2020 at 14:40
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium and Zinc-Aluminum Coatings for Non-Automotive Application
Iron is corroded by various factors such as moisture, salt and air exposure, causing problems in the building's exterior and structure. To solve this problem, studies have been continued about rust-resistant iron. Most of the galvanized steel used for outdoor applications are coated again painting on the galvanizing layer. More than that, Magnesium-added Zn-Al-Mg coated steel sheet is excellent fo ... More
Presented by Se-Young OH on 22 Jun 2020 at 20:05
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Non-Automotive Applications: ZnAlMg Coatings
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium Coatings for Automotive Application
ZnAlMg alloying coating has been widely applied in harsh environment, such as automotive. To be applied on car body, surface quality of the ZnAlMg coating sheet should be improved to meet requirement of painting. However, the ZnAlMg coating is easy to darken during being exposed in humid atmosphere. In this study, different ZnAlMg coating samples with various alloying composition were chosen to be ... More
Presented by GUANGRUI JIANG on 22 Jun 2020 at 16:30
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: Process Technology - Pre/Post-Treatment (Strip Cleaning, Skin Passing, Passivation, Oiling)
In order to meet the requirements of users for high corrosion resistance and spraying coating, the environment-friendly surface treatment technology for the 55% Al-Zn alloy coated steel sheet was studied, and the technology of passive film with high corrosion resistance and coating ability was formed. The morphology, composition and properties of passive film were tested and studied by infrared sp ... More
Presented by Xueqiang DONG on 22 Jun 2020 at 20:20
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: New Technological Concepts
When magnesium is added to the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet, corrosion resistance is greatly improved, but causes black spots. Rolled steel sheet has the effect of concealing black spot. And Rolling the pattern during the hot dip plating line can minimize the damage of many plating layers and can process various patterns.
Presented by EUNSU HAN on 22 Jun 2020 at 18:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: On-Line Measurements and Galvanizing Bath Control Development & Bath Al Chemistry Effects on Coating Quality and Bath Management
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
The primary focus is to explore the advantages of coreless coating and premelt pots compared with traditional channel inductor coating pots. To start we will first explore the basic theory behind induction melting in order to provide a better understanding of the fundamental differences between a coreless furnace and a traditional channel inductor. We will then take a closer look at how these ... More
Presented by Bert ARMSTRONG on 23 Jun 2020 at 15:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: HDG Coating Weight Control by Innovative Technological Concepts
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
Gas wiping is one of the most important processes which determine the product quality in continuous galvanizing line. Here, there are many problems known as, stability of coating weight, edge splashing and full splashing. We focused on the full splashing phenomenon which the runback flow of zinc detaches the substrate and pours on the gas nozzle. Generally, this phenomenon is known to occur when t ... More
Presented by Takashi OKE on 24 Jun 2020 at 16:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Automotive Applications - Zn and ZnFe Coatings
Track: Automobile Application - Forming, Joining, Painting and Final Properties  
In the automotive industry, the needs of adhesive bonding are increasing. It is well known that the deterioration over time of adhesive joined parts is one of the problems. Therefore, we investigated the deterioration behavior of adhesive joined parts using various steel sheets. As a result, deterioration over time was caused by the becoming weaker in interfacial adhesion strength between the met ... More
Presented by Masumi KOORI on 22 Jun 2020 at 15:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Coating Alloy Corrosion Studies
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium Coatings for Automotive Application
Zinc coatings alloyed with low amount of aluminium and magnesium (Zn-Al-Mg) have been proved to provide better corrosion performance than conventional hot dip galvanized (HDG) steel in various atmospheres, which offers large applications in many industrial sectors such as in the automotive industry. Zn-Al-Mg coatings are characterized by a rather complex microstructure including a dendritic phase ... More
Presented by Nathalie LEBOZEC on 24 Jun 2020 at 16:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Coating Alloy and Modification effects on Corrosion Behaviour
Track: Fundamentals on Atmospheric Corrosion and Corrosion Modelling
Zinc-coated steels are utilized for home appliances, construction materials and automobiles. On zinc-coating layer, chemical conversion coating is formed. Chromate-free chemical conversion coatings generally contain phosphate compounds to prevent zinc corrosion mainly in the flat areas. On the other hand, when zinc-coating layer is damaged during the manufacturing process, the underlying steel can ... More
Presented by Yuki SUZUKI on 24 Jun 2020 at 15:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-ZnFe: Liquid and Vapour Metal Induced Embrittlement
Track: Press Hardening of Zn-Based Coatings
22MnB5 press hardening steel is widely applied for automobile parts due to its reduced spring back effect after forming. In press hardening process, 22MnB5 steels are deformed by the press at high temperature and simultaneously quenched to obtain fully martensitic microstructure after the austenitization process. However, during the press hardening of Zn-coated 22MnB5 steels, the presence of liqui ... More
Presented by Seok-Hyun HONG on 24 Jun 2020 at 14:20
Session: HDG Coating Weight Control by Innovative Technological Concepts
Track: New Galvanizing Lines with Innovative Solutions and New Technological Concepts
Hatch has been developing and deploying a model-based coating control system for over 20 years. The resultant physics-based gas wiping process model has been adapted to a wide variety of equipment and coatings now being produced by the major steel producers. As the coating control technology has matured and the processing ability of PLCs has increased, the process model and control system has been ... More
Presented by Owen PEARCY
Hatch has been developing and deploying a model-based coating control system for over 20 years. The resultant physics-based gas wiping process model has been adapted to a wide variety of equipment and coatings now being produced by the major steel producers. As the coating control technology has matured and the processing ability of PLCs has increased, the process model and control system has been ... More
Presented by Owen PEARCEY on 24 Jun 2020 at 16:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: LME of Resistance Spot Welded Coated Steels: Moving Toward Solutions
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium Coatings for Automotive Application
The galvanized steel plate is developed to protect the car from air-pollution. However, when connecting using spot-welding, since the melting temperature of zinc coating is about 440-460ºC, the melted Zn or Zn intermetallic compounds would get penetrated into the grain boundaries, leading to the liquid metal embrittlement (LME). The pre-plating technology has been used to improve the LME resistan ... More
Presented by Xue BAI on 23 Jun 2020 at 11:40
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: Household Application  - Forming, Joining, Painting and Final Properties 
When using low carbon steel to produce pre-painted steel, there is a risk of a defect called fluting. Fluting is a series of sharp parallel kinks or creases occurring in the arc when sheet steel is formed cylindrically. One of the options for eliminating this defect is the use of interstitial free steel not subject to aging in the process of applying a pre-painted steel, but this leads to an incre ... More
Presented by Ruslan ADIGAMOV on 22 Jun 2020 at 20:30
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-ZnFe: New Steel & Coating Developments
Track: Press Hardening of Zn-Based Coatings
The hot-stamping (HS) process has been widely used to produce automobile components, because of the great demand for higher strength steel sheets. Moreover, coated steel sheets, including galvannealed steel sheets (GA), are being applied as HS material [1,2]. The structural change of GA coating during the HS heating process has been researched [2,3]. However, the mechanical properties of this Fe-Z ... More
Presented by Akihiro SENGOKU on 24 Jun 2020 at 16:50
Type: Oral Presentation Session: HDG Coating Formation & Dross Management
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
During hot-dip galvanizing dross particles form in the zinc bath and develop over the surface of submerged pot hardware. This accumulation of dross on the hardware is known as dross build-up. Dross build-up is a critical factor in the pot hardware lifetime. The surface quality of the hardware directly influences the quality of products produced on the galvanizing line. More dross build-up coul ... More
Presented by Mark BRIGHT on 23 Jun 2020 at 17:30
Type: Poster Session: Poster Session
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
The Zinc Alloy Coated Steel Sheets are mainly used for the plates of Automotive. Especially, the interstitial free steel is used to the outer panel and it is manufactured by press forming in the process of automotive manufacturing. The materials are needed of high formability because the press formed parts have some complicated shape, therefore high elongation of mechanical properties are importan ... More
Presented by Yuki TAKEDA on 22 Jun 2020 at 17:55
Type: Oral Presentation Session: PHS-AlSi & PHS-ZnFe: Controlling Surface Properties
Track: Press Hardening of Zn-Based Coatings
The automotive industry have come under increased pressure to reduce vehicle emissions whilst simultaneously improving safety. Light weighting through downgauging is a common strategy employed by steel makers to address these issues. This has led to increased volumes of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS), Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS) and Press Hardenable Steels (PHS) being used in Automotiv ... More
Presented by Mathew BURNELL on 23 Jun 2020 at 12:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Automotive Applications - Zn and ZnFe Coatings
Track: Automobile Application - Forming, Joining, Painting and Final Properties  
In order to meet the increasing demand for a flawless and attractively painted car, surface topography of sheet metal is becoming more and more into focus of optimization. Besides inhomogeneous painting, disturbing surface texture with long wavelength proportions can make the appearance of a coating disturbed and inferior. In order to measure and display these inhomogeneity’s, new characteristic ... More
Presented by Friedhelm MACHEREY on 22 Jun 2020 at 14:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Industrial Status of Galvanizing Production Technology
Track: In-Line Measurements and Quality Control
Product development is an essential factor for steel producers striving to maintain the position of steel in the competitive market for structural materials. Launching new products on the market and improving their properties is a strategy that allows manufacturers to remain competitive and to cope with changing customer requirements. Metallurgical models, automation systems and through-process q ... More
Presented by Sergey BRAGIN on 23 Jun 2020 at 09:30
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: New Technological Concepts
Through-Process Quality Control is a quality system intended to cover the entire production line, from the liquid phase to the finishing and packaging lines of the final end product. The term “Through-Process” has been coined to specifically emphasize this idea. TPQC is a quality management system for steel production, which helps to continuously monitor and to manage quality across all produc ... More
Presented by Wolfgang OBERAIGNER on 22 Jun 2020 at 19:00
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Challenges Galvanizing 2nd and 3rd Generation AHSS
Track: Automobile Application - Forming, Joining, Painting and Final Properties  
Hot-dip galvanized (GI) and galvanneal (GA)-coated third generation steels have been developed and commercialized at minimum tensile strength levels at both 780 and 980 MPa. These coated steels feature a combination of superior formability which, with targeted steel compositions and unique processing, have been shown to result in more customer-friendly properties and excellent residual ductility ... More
Presented by Matthew MCCOSBY on 23 Jun 2020 at 16:50
Type: Oral Presentation (*) Session: Fundamentals on Surface Oxidation and Metallic Reactions
Track: Structure and Surface Analysis as well as Defect Characterization
Dual phase (DP) steels are known for having issues with hot dip galvanizing due to the formation of surface alloy-oxides [1]. These oxides appear during the annealing step, preventing a good zinc adhesion to the base metal [2]. This work aims to give a fundamental understanding of the nucleation and growth mechanisms of the oxides. DP800 steel samples were oxidised in a flowing argon atmosphere, w ... More
Presented by Jennifer ROLLS on 24 Jun 2020 at 11:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Surface Oxidation and Metallic Reactions
Track: New Galvanizing Lines with Innovative Solutions and New Technological Concepts
A new type of martensitic steel by utilizing the concept of Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) has recently been established known also as “Low-End cycle”. A too high partitioning treatment temperature at 465°C will not provide the best metallurgical results of the Q&P-treatment which are possible to be achieved without the hot-dip coating at the last step of the metallurgical heat treatment ch ... More
Presented by Pertti SIPPOLA on 24 Jun 2020 at 11:40
Type: Poster (*) Session: Poster Session
Track: Process Technology - Pre/Post-Treatment (Strip Cleaning, Skin Passing, Passivation, Oiling)
Third-generation advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) are a major opportunity for steel industry as they push the limits of both tensile strength and elongation to an outstanding level. This evolution is benefiting to everyone and brings major advantages: increased safety level, lower weight, more complex geometry and reduced energy consumption. Of course to be able to produce this new product ra ... More
Presented by Thomas VALLEE on 22 Jun 2020 at 19:15
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Fundamentals on Surface Oxidation and Wettability
Track: Challenges in Galvanizing Advanced High Strength Steels (GI, GA,…)
The high contents of alloying elements in next generation steels (NGS), tend to segregate to the steel surface upon annealing and can be selectively oxidized prior to hot-dip galvanizing (HDG) zinc deposition. These surface oxides are detrimental to the wettability of NGSs, hindering the formation of a fully sealed inhibition layer during HDG. Consequently, the adhesion of the zinc coating to the ... More
Presented by Yuliu YOU on 24 Jun 2020 at 09:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: HDG Coating Weight Control by Nozzle Design & Settings
Track: HDG Process Technology - Furnace, Galvanizing Bath, Coating Weight Control 
For decades, baffles became the standard tool to limit the edge effects of wiping in the hot dip galvanizing process (overcoating, splashing). Initially designed to highly reduce the noise caused by the interaction of the two opposite air jets, baffles exhibited as well benefits to master the quality of the wiping process along the edges. Each line acquired specific designs and setup to reach th ... More
Presented by Remi VALENTIN on 24 Jun 2020 at 15:20
Type: Oral Presentation Session: HDG Coating Weight Control by Nozzle Design & Settings
Track: Fundamentals on Gas - Metal Interfacial Reactions
The variation of thin metallic coating thickness produced in continuous galvanizing lines (CGLs) is attributed partly to the fluctuations in both the spatial profile and gradient of the impingement wall pressure. A fluctuating pressure profile can significantly alter both the magnitude of the maximum pressure gradient doing the majority of the wiping work and its location. A wiping jet with more s ... More
Presented by Le Quang PHAN on 24 Jun 2020 at 14:40
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Pot Optimization by Numerical Simulation and Material Development
Track: Fundamentals on Solid - Liquid Interfacial Reactions
The end plates and flanges used in retractable snouts are fabricated from 253MA, to overcome failure modes associated with long service periods at temperature above 500oC. Alloy 253MA is creep resistant micro-alloyed stainless steel developed for applications requiring high temperature oxidation resistance. In 253MA the alloying elements Si, Ce, and N promote the formation of a very adherent, impe ... More
Presented by Daniel PARKER on 24 Jun 2020 at 09:10
Type: Oral Presentation Session: Coating Alloy Corrosion Studies
Track: Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium and Zinc-Aluminum Coatings for Non-Automotive Application
ZnAlMg (ZM) metallic coatings are already in use since the start of their development in the late 2000’s, while the production still benefits from a steady volume increase. It has been proven already that this type of metallic coatings is having an excellent corrosion resistance in divers harsh environments. One of the highly used markets for this type of metallic coatings is the solar panel ... More
Presented by Beril CORLU on 24 Jun 2020 at 17:10