# European Direct Reduced Iron and Alternative Ironmaking Conference - IRONMASTERS 2022

22-24 June 2022
Europe/Vienna timezone
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## Contribution List

Displaying 53 contributions out of 53
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process operations in gas based direct reduction technologies (MIDREX, HYL etc.)
Since hot commissioning in the fall of 2016, voestalpine Texas LLC has been producing high quality Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI) for both internal and external use. The following paper provides a review of the major technical features of the 2 million tons per year HBI plant inclusive of raw materials unloading and handling, iron ore reduction and gas reforming, water treatment and the handling and l ... More
Presented by Mr. Helmut SCHWARZ
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Iron ore production and processing
Higher demands for resource and process efficiency have led to increasing requirements on slag making and analysis. But today's technology to homogenize and analyse slag samples takes 7 minutes at the very minimum. With LIBS up to 1000 measurements per second instantaneous slag analysis becomes possible. This presentation displays how LIBS based slag analysis systems not only analyze slags witho ... More
Presented by Mr. Schlemminger ALEXANDER
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Raw materials for DRI and Alternative Ironmaking
The short process of electric furnace steelmaking with the burden of direct reduced iron (DRI), is an important process to produce high-quality and special steel, which is characteristic of low energy consumption. Meanwhile, coal-based rotary kiln is one of the most competitive processes for DRI production. In this paper, the high-grade magnetite concentrates with an iron grade of up to 68% is use ... More
Presented by Prof. Deqing ZHU
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process operations in gas based direct reduction technologies (MIDREX, HYL etc.)
Saba steel HBI plant, stated in 2018, has faced some uneven problems in plant operation since start up in 2018. The problems recognized to so that requires very careful investigation and study. We in our presentation will show the audience how we have analyzed two of main problems that could be said to be a real HAZOP study. The investigation includes the problem description narratively and ph ... More
Presented by Mr. Hamidreza TAVALLAI
Type: Oral Presentation Track: DRI as an alternative raw material for iron and steelmaking (applications in blast furnace, EAF etc.)
Addition of DRI to blast furnaces has known benefits for increasing productivity and decreasing coke rate. DRI additions to the blast furnace have been revisited to reduce blast furnace CO2 emissions. Carbon taxes may motivate DRI additions to reduce CO2 emissions. Technology changes are needed to overcome the challenges of low top gas temperature. We estimate the maximum amount of DRI that can be ... More
Presented by Mr. Ian CAMERON, Dr. Mitren SUKHRAM
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Iron ore production and processing
In metallurgy, it is essential to obtain and use high quality fuel and reducing agents with low environmental impact. The use of biomaterials as a fuel might help to solve technological and environmental issues of sinter production. Biomass has enormous renewable carbon potential and CO2 neutrality. The main advantages of biomass are the low mineral composition and almost complete absence of sulph ... More
Presented by Dr. Lina KIEUSH
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
Hydrogen based direct reduction by the means of fluidized bed technology is one possibility for sustainable ironmaking in the future. On the one hand, the exclusive use of hydrogen as a reducing agent allows an almost CO2 free reduction procedure; on the other hand, iron ore fines can be used directly without a prior agglomeration step. Because of the endothermal character of hydrogen-based reduct ... More
Presented by Mr. Daniel SPREITZER
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
This paper will discuss the possibilities to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the BF process by hot coke, sinter or DRI charging, injection of alternative fuels and potential consequences on the overall process. Such revolutionary changes would have major impacts on the ironmaking process and the respective equipment. After verification with various involved technology and operation ... More
Presented by Dr. Rainer BERTLING
Type: Oral Presentation Track: CO2 Reduction and environmental aspects in the DRI industry
The last two decades have been marked by significant political changes with a view to slowing global warming and therefore CO2 emissions. Within this context, the European Union is on the front line in promoting a policy to gradually reduce CO2 emissions, thus becoming the first carbon-neutral continent. It aims to cut CO2 emissions by 20%, 40% and 100% compared to 1990 levels, by the years 2020, ... More
Presented by Mr. Ashton HERTRICH G.
Type: Oral Presentation Track: CO2 Reduction and environmental aspects in the DRI industry
CO2 lean making of DRI needs normally a combination of natural gas and CCS or green hydrogen as reductant. The properties of methanol makes it an ideal reductant for DRI production. Methanol contains about 12.5 % hydrogen and is after NH3 the best hydrogen storage material. The hydrogen content corresponds to a hydrogen density at a pressure of more than 1000 bar. It is liquid with a boiling tempe ... More
Presented by Dr. Guenter HARP
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
Since 2008,four Japanese blast furnace steelmakers and one engineering company have been working on an innovative ironmaking process using hydrogen. The main research activities of the project consist of two parts. One is the development of hydrogen utilization technology for iron ore reduction using coke oven gas that contains a large amount of hydrogen. The other is the development of CO2 captur ... More
Presented by Dr. Koji SAITO
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process simulation and modelling
DRI pellets vulnerability to successive collisions and the fine generation is a major concern of iron making industries. During the DR process, transportation, and buffer storage, DRI pellets are subjected to successive pellet-pellet and pellet-wall collisions. Depending on the impact conditions (i.e., angle, velocity, and force) and the characteristics of the pellets, various kinds of mechanical ... More
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process simulation and modelling
The objective of this study was to investigate the gases flow behavior at the oxygen enrichment unit. In addition, to evaluate the natural gas partial combustion efficiency and carbon deposition rate. To identify the optimum operation parameters that can lead to achieve the minimum natural gas consumption with the highest possible reformed gas temperature and also eliminate and/or reduce the carb ... More
Presented by Dr. Mansour ALHARBI, Mr. Mohammed AL-ZAYER
Type: Oral Presentation Track: CO2 Reduction and environmental aspects in the DRI industry
Many steel industry roadmaps toward the very significant reduction of CO2 emissions required by the political agenda in many countries envisage the DRI/EAF system as a key component along the pathway to carbon neutrality in steelmaking. In this respect, IIMA is putting together a white paper on some key practical issues that need to be considered beyond the macro-level issues such as availabilit ... More
Presented by Mr. John ATHERTON
Type: Oral Presentation
Steel industry accounts for a substantial share of our global carbon footprint. To date this hard-to-abate industry requires still a significant amount of carbon for reduction and heating purpose. The target of the Industry is to achieve latest by 2050 an 80% carbon emission reduction vs. the 1990 baseline. Some major industry players target even a climate neutrality at earlier dates. Technolog ... More
Presented by Dr. Alesander FLEISCHANDERL
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Raw materials for DRI and Alternative Ironmaking
Vanadic titanomagnetite, as a kind of polymetallic symbiosis iron ore, is widely distributed all over the world which has high comprehensive utilization value. Coal-based direct reduction pellets can provide high-quality raw materials for electric furnace smelting. In this paper, the coal-based direct reduction behavior and mechanism of oxidized pellets prepared from imported V-Ti magnetite (IP), ... More
Presented by Dr. Jian PAN
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Recycling of in-plant residues
The copper industry at different operational stages produces large volume of wastes. During matte smelting stage slag becomes one of the waste materials that occupies significant territories causing environmental issues. The matte smelting slag contains Si, Fe, Cu, Zn and S. The technological scheme for recycling of copper smelting slags with subsequent obtaining valuable products was provided in ... More
Presented by Dr. Yury KAPELYUSHIN
Type: Oral Presentation Track: DRI as an alternative raw material for iron and steelmaking (applications in blast furnace, EAF etc.)
voestalpine has ramped up its 2 Mio. mt p.a. HBI plant in Corpus Christi, Texas end of 2016 and has since then gathered extensive experience not only on the production and use of HBI in its own BOF based steel making operations but also on the products´ supply to its mostly EAF-based international customers. This paper will provide insight on the current and future value-in-use and importance of ... More
Presented by Mr. Stefan EINFALT
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process operations in gas based direct reduction technologies (MIDREX, HYL etc.)
One of the challenges faced by steel producers employing direct reduction technology is the deterioration of DRI metallization before being charged into the electric arc furnace (EAF) negatively affecting the metallic yield of produced heats. The present study considers organic materials that might have the ability to “deactivate” DRI if used as coating agents. These include silicone oil, ... More
Presented by Mr. Mohammed ALZAYER
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process operations in gas based direct reduction technologies (MIDREX, HYL etc.)
A novel atmosphere-controlled furnace was successfully developed by Lhoist, which allows the company to take active part in the process transformations of iron and steel making towards a CO2 emission free industry. This furnace is designed to perform qualitative metallurgical research on e.g. reduction behaviors of iron ore feedstocks in controlled mixed-gas atmospheres (CO, CO2, H2, N2, O2, CH4, ... More
Presented by Dr. Michael NISPEL
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process operations in coal based smelting reduction processes (COREX, FINEX etc.)
Many researches on the reduction of carbon-iron ore composite have been reported to decrease carbon dioxide emission from ironmaking process. There are many types of carbonaceous materials such as coke, dust, coal, and biomass char. Some of them have a certain amount of sulfur which affects the reduction behavior. In this study, effect of sulfur contents, its form, and CaO addition on the carburiz ... More
Presented by Dr. TAICHI MURAKAMI
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process operations in coal based smelting reduction processes (COREX, FINEX etc.)
Toward to “Zero carbon emission” from steel industry, suppression of greenhouse gas emission from ironmaking process should be one of the most important issue. Although one of the promising technologies is hydrogen ironmaking, produced iron should be melted for refining process. Especially, slag-metal separation is necessary for purification. From this point of view, a certain amount of carbon ... More
Presented by Prof. Ko-ichiro OHNO
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
To achieve the ambitious goal set by the Paris Climate Action members for CO2 reduction to achieve minimum 80% emission reduction by latest 2050, radical changes to current production technologies for iron and steel are required. More and more governments worldwide demand carbon-neutral production routes for the heavy industries. One of the visionary innovations is based on the unique and carbo ... More
Presented by Dr. Alexander FLEISCHANDERL
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Plant management and economics
Iron and steel making requires a wide range of different raw materials significantly influencing process performance which demands a continuous optimisation of process routes also with respect to energy efficiency as well as environmental emissions. Steadily changing raw material prices and qualities, market situations and product variations are challenging integrated steel plant operators in prod ... More
Presented by Dr. Bernd WEISS
Type: Oral Presentation Track: CO2 Reduction and environmental aspects in the DRI industry
Direct reduction technologies move more and more into the spotlight due to their significant reduction of carbon dioxide emissions compared with other ironmaking technologies. This fact as well as their suitability for upgrading to hydrogen based ironmaking routes make direct reduction technologies a corner stone for future sustainable steelmaking business. Even though considering their advantages ... More
Presented by Dr. Thomas STEINPARZER
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
The steel industry, especially in Europe, is under strong pressure to reduce its $\rm CO_2$-emissions to fulfill the required climate protection goals. Even a change from the BF/BOF-route to the DRI/EAF-route is not sufficient, if the DRI-production is still based on natural gas. Thus, hydrogen-based reduction is under strong investigation and first pilot projects will be installed. However, hydro ... More
Presented by Prof. Marc HÖLLING
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
Due to the increasing amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and the associated climate change new technologies for reducing CO2 emissions in iron making processes are inevitable. Therefore, the steel industry is pushed to make further progress towards higher energy and resource efficiency as well as environmental protection. Under these boundary conditions the HYFOR technology is being developed by Prim ... More
Presented by Mr. Hanspeter OFNER, Mr. Norbert REIN
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Shipping and logistics of DRI
As the industry association for the Ore-based Metallics industry IIMA is very much concerned with the safe handling and transportation of DRI. With the expected growth in DRI production and shipment as part of the pathway to carbon-neutral steel production, it is important that best practice in this area is shared as widely as possible. The presentation will cover the regulatory framework gove ... More
Presented by Mr. Chris BARRINGTON
Type: Oral Presentation Track: CO2 Reduction and environmental aspects in the DRI industry
The total CO2e footprint of all ironmaking technologies is linked to their material inputs. The CO2e embedded in the production of these feed materials and the logistics of their supply are non-trivial, and complete accounting of these costs – from mine or well head to hot metal – is necessary for a holistic comparison of the emissions footprint of the available ironmaking technologies. Thanks ... More
Presented by Mr. Richard ELLIOTT
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
The steel industry contributes with around 6% to the worldwide anthropogenic emissions of CO2. Therefore, it is clear that new ways of steel production need to be investigated. One promising technology is the so-called Hydrogen Plasma Smelting Reduction (HPSR), which not only produces steel without the usage of fossil fuels but also is a one-step process from iron ore towards steel. In this, study ... More
Presented by Mr. Michael Andreas ZARL
Type: Oral Presentation Track: CO2 Reduction and environmental aspects in the DRI industry
The iron and steel industry accounts for approximately 30 % of the global industrial CO2-emissions. As the reduction potentials of the current steelmaking routes are rather low, the transfer towards breakthrough-technologies is essential to reach the goals of the Paris Agreement which means a reduction of CO2 by 80 %. The hydrogen-based direct reduction (DR) is one of different approaches to reali ... More
Presented by Ms. Katharina RECHBERGER
Type: Oral Presentation Track: CO2 Reduction and environmental aspects in the DRI industry
Environmental regulations in the steel and iron world are becoming more stringent during the last years and heat recovery is becoming of central importance. There are several designs of recuperators and the one we’re going to discuss is made by tubes bundle. The selection of a high alloyed grades for such pipes would allow you to increase the heat recovery by increasing the temperature of the pr ... More
Presented by Dr. Alessandra SPAGHETTI
Type: Oral Presentation Track: DRI as an alternative raw material for iron and steelmaking (applications in blast furnace, EAF etc.)
Session: DRI as an alternative raw material for iron and steelmaking (applications in blast furnace, EAF etc.) Integration of DRI plants into classical BOF production sites The production of quality flat steel products is commonly linked to highly integrated sites which include Hot metal generation via the Blast Furnace route, Oxygen Steelmaking (BOF), Continuous Casting, and subsequent Hot ... More
Presented by Mr. Frank DR. AHRENHOLD
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process operations in gas based direct reduction technologies (MIDREX, HYL etc.)
Since the iron and steel industry is responsible for a portion of 7-10% of the global CO2 emissions, it has to reduce its CO2 emissions drastically during the next 30 years. The EU target is a reduction of CO2 emissions by 80% until 2050, which can only be achieved by switching to different iron & steel production processes. This can be either the scrap-EAF route for certain quality grade steels o ... More
Presented by Mr. Robert MILLNER
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process operations in gas based direct reduction technologies (MIDREX, HYL etc.)
Gas dynamics and gas distribution in cross-section of shaft furnace play crucial role in increase of furnace productivity, reduction in natural gas rate and DRI quality improvement. Optimum design parameters of gas distribution devises were investigated by means of mathematical modelling, pilot plant and industrial installation studies. New heat transfer co-current schematics of gas and material m ... More
Presented by Dr. Yakov GORDON
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process simulation and modelling
Importance of air flow through the sinter bed has been a challenge to sinter makers for a long time. This is widely used as a measure of permeability of sinter bed. Measurement of sinter bed permeability was attempted by many in the past, but without much success. The authors have developed a novel technique to measure it successfully and reliably. Based on a novel concept the device has been deve ... More
Presented by Dr. Debanik MITRA
Type: Oral Presentation Track: CO2 Reduction and environmental aspects in the DRI industry
The reduction of CO2 emission is one of important issue for the sustainable production of steel in EAF(Electric Arc Furnace). The way to decrease CO2 emissions can be achieved by reducing the use of electrical energy, and by increasing the use of chemical energy without carbon based materials. In general, the chemical energy of EAF can be improved by the heats of oxidation reaction and the carbon ... More
Presented by Mr. Gyu Wan KIM
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Iron ore production and processing
This research work investigated the nature of a nonmagnetic ore from Pudo and its fluxing effect on the extent of reduction of the Pudo titaniferous magnetite ore using pulverised samples of charred carbonaceous materials generated from end-of-life vehicle tyres (ELT) as reductants. Reduction studies were conducted on composite pellets of the Pudo titaniferous magnetite iron ore containing fixed a ... More
Presented by Mr. Emmauel ABOTAR
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process operations in coal based smelting reduction processes (COREX, FINEX etc.)
Non-blast furnace iron-making technology is one of the advanced emerging routes for the development of iron and steel industry. At present time, although the conventional blast furnace process is still the dominant route for the pig iron production in China, but it is also facing the unprecedented pressure of environmental protection, energy conservation, and shortage of raw materials. The differe ... More
Presented by Prof. Chenguang BAI, Prof. Shengfu ZHANG
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
Recently a special attention is being paid on the Hydrogen Direct Reduction (H-DR) process to minimize the CO2 emissions in ironmaking processes. Despite the fact that many components of the H-DR/EAF setup have been tested in industrial settings, key challenges, such as the high cost of renewable electricity still remain for the process. Biomass, as a renewable source of heating and reducing, is a ... More
Presented by Prof. Dieter SENK
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Recycling of in-plant residues
One of the challenges facing steel producers that rely on direct reduction technologies is the sticking tendency of iron ore pellets, which might lead to disrupting operational procedures. In an effort to reduce the sticking tendency of iron ore pellets, suppliers apply inactive coating materials and steel producers apply an additional coating in the form of slurry prior to charging pellets to the ... More
Type: Oral Presentation
Today, the majority share of energy demand for steelmaking is provided by fossil energy sources. Future energy scenarios based on significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions by introducing increasing shares of renewable energy sources call for new energy concepts for steelworks. Green energy, such as renewable electricity and renewable gases, needs to substitute fossil process gases and energ ... More
Presented by Dr. Rudolf ZAUNER
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
30 years ago, Outotec and its predecessor Lurgi started the development work on reduction of iron ore fines in a fluidized bed with a gaseous reductant. This work culminated 10 years later in the commissioning of the Circored plant in Trinidad as the first industrial operation of direct fine iron ore reduction with only hydrogen as the reducing gas. At the time, hydrogen as the sole reductant was ... More
Presented by Mr. Tobias STEFAN
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process operations in gas based direct reduction technologies (MIDREX, HYL etc.)
Beginning of development of gas based direct reduction processes goes back to the end of 19 century. The first industrial application was Wiberg-Soderfors DRI shaft furnace process. The history of development and implementation of various gas based direct reduction processes was studied. The strength and week features of this processes were evaluated. It was shown that economics of the direct redu ... More
Presented by Dr. Yakov GORDON
Type: Oral Presentation Track: CO2 Reduction and environmental aspects in the DRI industry
Today, primary steel worldwide is predominantly produced via carbon based processes as the BF/BOF route. Consequently, steelmaking is responsible for more than 7% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, leaving the decarbonization of this industrial sector as challenging as societally important. Luckily, nature offers an alternative to carbon: It can be replaced by hydrogen as chemical reactant ... More
Presented by Mr. Volker HILLE
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
As global warming became a serious social issue, the steel industry has become a social obligation to reduce carbon dioxide emission. In South Korea, the utilization of In-House H2 gas as a reducing agent in BF operation has been considered one of the promising solutions (COOLSTAR). With increasing H2 gas utilization rate, it is expected that the coke consumption rate as fuel and reductant decreas ... More
Presented by Prof. Joonho LEE
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
Recent work by the authors on the interaction of MgO-14.5 wt.% C refractory with Fe/FeO under the conditions of the novel flash ironmaking technology (FIT) developed in the University of Utah showed the formation of a magnesiowustite ((Fe,Mg)O) solid solution. In this work, interdiffusion in the (Fe,Mg)O solid solution has been discussed by analysing the experimental data for two different cases v ... More
Presented by Dr. Rahul SARKAR
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
As a result of declining raw materials, environmental pollution and increasing public pressure, countries are urged to deal with the topic of an energy system transformation. Especially fossil energy intensive industries – such as the steel industry – have to revise or change their business models and technology portfolio. Technical developments showed that a sustainable steel production based ... More
Presented by Dr. Michael SKORIANZ
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
The climate change, mainly caused by gaseous emissions like CO2, is globally one of the most important subjects. Big efforts are required to solve this problem within the next decades. The European Commission´s low carbon roadmap suggests a reduction of CO2 emissions of 80 % by 2050 compared to 2005 levels. The steel industry, which contributes around 6 % to the worldwide anthropogenic emissions ... More
Presented by Mr. Alexander RIMSER
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
Technological solutions, to utilize process gases from the iron and steel industry for production of fuels and chemicals, are an attractive sustainable and economic approach for industries today. This innovative approach converts carbon and hydrogen-rich off-gases, such as coke oven gas, blast furnace top gas and also converter gas into liquid based energy sources through a biological gas fermenta ... More
Presented by Dr. Wim VAN DER STRICHT
Type: Oral Presentation Track: CO2 Reduction and environmental aspects in the DRI industry
The steel sector is one of the largest industrial sources of global CO2 emissions. The mitigation of CO2 emissions is becoming critical in many countries for environmental and taxation reasons. While the natural gas-based MIDREX® Process paired with an electric arc furnace (EAF) has the lowest CO2 emissions of any steelmaking route, there is room to further decrease emissions using hydrogen as a ... More
Presented by Dr. Vincent CHEVRIER
Type: Oral Presentation Track: Process simulation and modelling
An Optimization model for mass and energy balance has been developed including all the metallurgical and electrical variable parameters influencing the EAF using DRI as charge. Energy required for melting a DRI based charge is dependent on the type of DRI i.e Coal based or Gas based. It also depends on the Metallization along with the Carbon %, gangue and FeO content. During melting of DRI, energy ... More
Presented by Mr. ANILKUMAR SEEMON, Mr. BIPIN RICHHARIA
Type: Oral Presentation Track: New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)
Climate change and international agreements are calling for radical CO2 emission reduction. Already now, Europe’s benchmark (of CO2 emitted for the production of one ton of hot rolled product) for the Emission Certificates Trade Scheme is about 20% lower than the average of well performing European integrated plants’ current actual output. Scrap based EAF steel has certainly potential to reduc ... More
Presented by Mr. Ingo BOTH