11-14 September 2017
Congress Graz, Austria
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Contribution Oral Presentation

Congress Graz, Austria

Melting and Casting Technologies for the production of 9-12% Chromium Steels for the Power Generation Industry


  • Dr. Harald HOLZGRUBER

Primary authors


Nowadays the production of 9-12% chromium steels is characterized by different metallurgical processes adjusted to the final application and customer requirements. Usually the primary melting is done in the EAF and the steel is further refined in the LF and VD/VOD respectively AOD process. In the production route a special focus lies on the casting and remelting technology. For casting the conventional ingot casting process is usually applied. Segment casting can also be utilized for casting an ingot with better product quality compared to the conventional casting process. For ingots with a weight exceeding 100 tons and for a precise control of the hydrogen content the so called VSD (vacuum stream degassing) process is used. For enhanced product quality, the 9-12% chromium steels are subsequently remelted in the ESR process before forging, heat treatment and machining. This keynote lecture covers the typical production routes and the involved processes in melting and casting 9-12% chromium steels and will also highlight the state of the art plant technology in order to produce the required quality